URL DOI: http://doi.org/10.17533/udea.efyd.v35n2a02
Artículos de investigación
Marília da Silva Alves3
Ricardo Fontes Macedo4
Ângela Luciana De-Bortoli5
1Research “Propriedade Intelectual na Educação Física”, with financial suport by Universidade Federal de Sergipe and Bolsas de Iniciação Científica (PIBIC) of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Brasil)
2Doutor em Ciências da Atividade Física pela Universidade de León (España). Professor Departamento de Educação Física, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Propriedade Intelectual, Grupo de Pesquisa LADEC, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Aracaju-Brasil). email@example.com
3Graduação em Educação Física-Bacharelado pela Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Brasil). Bolsista de Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação Científica (PIBIC) de Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Brasil). Grupo de Pesquisa LADEC, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Aracaju-Brasil). firstname.lastname@example.org
4Doutorando en Ciência da Propriedade Intelectual, Graduação em Educação Física-Bacharelado, Mestre em Educação Física pela Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Brasil). Grupo de Pesquisa LADEC, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Aracaju-Brasil). email@example.com
5 Licenciatura em Educação Física e Especialização em Ciência do Desporto Coletivo Futsal pela Universidade de Passo Fundo (Brasil). Grupo de Pesquisa LADEC, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (Aracaju-Brasil). firstname.lastname@example.org
|De-Bortoli, R., Alves, M., Macedo, R. F., De-Bortoli, Â. L. (2016). Bibliometrics of the physical activities in natural environment: terms in use. Educación Física y Deporte, 35 (2), 295-311, Jul.-Dic. http://doi.org/10.17533/udea.efyd.v35n2a02|
Currently, several terms are used to define physical activities in the natural environment, which gives the impression that, despite the standardization of names and the adjustments of Ecotourism and Adventure Ecotourism made by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards there is not synchronization and agreement between these activities. This study has two main purposes. First, to analyze the nomenclatures of physical activity offers practiced in nature, through national websites related to intellectual property, adventure tourism and national tourism in the state of Sergipe in Brazil. Second, to find out if there is a differentiation between the terms and their definitions. For this purpose, a documentary research was conducted, which attempted to analyze companies registered on three platforms and their services. Corroborating the literature, there are different terms which apply to similar corporal practices; in other words, there is not standardization of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism on the websites. However, the lack of clarity and standardization of terms and definitions can offer a higher risk for practitioners. Eco-fitness can be a new a possibility to standardize activities, which could facilitate the supervision of qualified professionals and the reduction of unnecessary risks.
KEYWORDS: Eco-tourism, Tourism, Motor Activity, Recreation
En la actualidad, varios términos son utilizados para definir actividades físicas practicadas en el medio natural, lo que da la impresión de que, a pesar de la normalización de los nombres y definiciones de Ecoturismo y Turismo de Aventura por la Asociación Brasileña de Normas Técnicas (ABNT), no hay sincronía y consenso entre tales actividades. El objetivo de este estudio fue dividido en dos: el primer objetivo fue analizar las nomenclaturas de las ofertas de actividades físicas practicada en la naturaleza a través de sitios web relacionados con propiedad intelectual, turismo de aventura, turismo en el ámbito nacional y turismo en el estado de Sergipe (Brasil). El segundo objetivo fue averiguar si hay diferenciación validada entre los términos y sus definiciones. Para este fin se realizó una investigación documental donde se buscó analizar las empresas registradas en tres plataformas y los servicios que ofrecían. Corroborando con la literatura, hay diversos términos que se refieren a prácticas corporales similares, es decir, se verificó que no hay estandarización de términos referidos a Ecoturismo y Turismo de Aventura en los sitios web de registros de empresas y marcas. Sin embargo, la falta de claridad y estandarización de términos y definiciones puede ofrecer un mayor riesgo para los practicantes. Ecofitness quizás sea una nueva posibilidad de estandarización actividades, lo que facilita la supervisión de los profesionales habilitados y la reducción de riesgos innecesarios.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Ejercicio, Turismo, Actividad Motora, Recreación.
Na atualidade, vários termos são utilizados para definir as atividades físicas no meio natural, o que dá a impressão de que, apesar da normalização dos nomes e os ajustes de Ecoturismo e Turismo de Aventura pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas [ABNT], não há sincronização e consenso entre ditas atividades. O objetivo deste estudo foi dividido em dois, o primeiro objetivo foi analisar as nomenclaturas das ofertas de atividades físicas praticadas na natureza através dos website relacionados com a propriedade intelectual e o turismo de aventura em âmbito nacional e turismo no estado de Sergipe (Brasil). O segundo objetivo foi descobrir se há diferenciação entre os termos e suas definições. Para isso foi feita uma pesquisa documental onde se buscou analisar empresas cadastradas em três plataformas e os serviços que oferecem. Corroborando com a literatura, há diversos termos que se referem a práticas corporais similares, ou seja, não tinha estandardização dos termos que se referem ao Ecoturismo e Turismo de Aventura nos website das entradas de empresas e marcas. No entanto, a falta de clareza e estandardização de termos e definições pode oferecer um maior risco para os profissionais. Ecofitness pode ser uma nova possibilidade de atividades de normalização, o que facilita a supervisão de profissionais qualificados e a redução de riscos desnecessários.
PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Exercício, Turismo, Atividade Motora, Recreação.
Currently, various terms are used to define physical activities in the natural environment, which gives the impression that despite the standardization of names and definitions of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, there is no sync and consensus among such activities. Amongst works that deal with outdoor activities, the variation of nomenclature is noticeable when referring to any activity practiced in the natural environment. Adventure Physical Activities in Nature (APAN) (Oliveira, 1995; Tahara, Dias & Schwartz, 2006; Costa, 2006; Carnicelli-Filho, 2007; Corrêa, 2008); Adventure Tourism (Lopez-Richard, Alamino & Simoes, 2007); Adventure Activities in Nature (Marinho, 2008) and Ecofitness (De-Bortoli et al., 2015) are some nomenclatures found on the literature.
Oliveira (1995) defends APAN as an interest in contact with nature, fun evasion, personal fulfillment and new and pleasant sensations. And, it is based on the integration of man in nature through the overcoming of obstacles presented by nature. Most recent, Oliveira & Oliveira (2016), wrote a taxonomic classification based on the study written by Oliveira (1995), in what explains and review the use of this term worldwide, showing the popularity among adventure activities practices. Likewise, the term “Adventure Tourism” by Brazilian Tourism Company (EMBRATUR) is and subdivision of the tourist market, which promotes recreational and adventures activities in natural environments and urban spaces outdoors. Besides, those activities involve controlled risks and emotions, explaining the needing for specific techniques, procedures and equipment in order to guarantee safety and respect for the environment (Lopez-Richard et al., 2007). Marinho (2008), defends the term “Adventure Activities in Nature” as pleasant experiences, where people can learn something about the place, the local culture, other people and themselves, without experiencing risks. Finally, the term “Ecofitness”, mentioned by De-Bortoli et al. (2015), is a term that comprises the promotion of physical activities, ecological values and respect for the environment.
Indeed, each term has its specificity regarding to corporal activities in outdoor environments. However, “Ecofitness” stands for outdoor physical activities, considered as adventure or not, that involve emotions, the possibilities of risks or not and respect for the environment. That is, “Ecofitness” embraces general characteristics of other terms used for the same purpose, outdoor physical activities.
In fact, although the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) defines the term "Adventure Tourism", there is an increasing rising of sub-segments of activities in nature. Pimentel (2013) states that the appearing of new nomenclatures for similar activities performed in nature favors the lack of consensus in delimiting actions. In turn, Corrêa (2008) states that, the lack of a single term to define these activities and their relation to the risks, favors the choice of the term "Adventure Sports".
By the way, definitions have been added to physical activities, such as AFAN, so there is a new term for other similar activities. The AFAN integrates the consumer society through the tourism industry, especially Ecotourism, Adventure Tourism and Leisure (Costa, 2006). On the other hand, Carnicelli-Filho (2007, p.6) adds in his dissertation that AFAN "appear as an option that can promote a redefinition of the relationship between human beings and nature-emotion". So, besides the influences of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism in the outdoor activities, AFAN also promote psychological changes of practitioners (De-Bortoli et al, 2015).
Although there are several terms used in the literature referring to activities in nature, the term "Adventure Tourism" was regulated by the Regulatory Brazilian Standards (NBR) 15500/2007 of ABNT. Adventure tourism is then characterized as a practice of recreational activities, usually adapted from adventure activities that are offered commercially and have assessed, controlled and assumed risks (ABNT, 2007).
Thus, through several analysis terms, one of the needs to understand the activities practiced in nature is to seek consensus on the definition and characterization of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism Activities. Differentiating Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, Dias & Vital (2014) featured Ecotourism as contemplation, contribution to the local population and promotion of environmental awareness. The Adventure tourism is characterized as an outdoor culture of life through adventure activity practices, where the risks are recognized. Ecotourism is also defined as a "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the local population welfare, and involves interpretation and education" (TIES, 2015, p.1). And, according to the Ministry of Tourism of Brazil, the Adventure Tourism includes "tourist movements arising from the practice of recreational character of adventure activities and not competitive". However, it is noticeable blend of Adventure and Ecotourism Tourist Activities on the national scene.
Indeed, the terms can be used with aims to enhance marketing strategies of companies, i.e. the misuse of terms to target more than one activity and generate more profit. Consequently, because there is no supervision of activities specifications in nature, ecotourism companies offer adventure activities into their routine just to diversify their care. In turn, Dias & Vital (2014) corroborate this information to state in their study that although there is market segmentation, there is the inclusion of Adventure activities in Ecotourism sector.
Noting the wide range of activities like Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, it was questioned the interpretation of the differences between these two activities in enrollment platforms of companies that offer both services. Thus, it is possible to understand if there is standardization of terms in the register of companies that offer these services. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the scope of the terms used in the marks registration databases and services of companies that offer activities Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism activities.
Kind of study
This was a documentary research with application of research methodology criteria, which through research official documents available from various sources, in this case online platforms of different institutions, was later enter data in specific program for secure data analysis.
Field of study
The documents analyzed were available on online platforms of three institutions related to Intellectual Property, Adventure Tourism and Ecotourism company’s registration. National Institution of Intellectual Property (INPI), Brazilian Association of Adventure Tourism (ABETA) and Cadastur. National Institution of Intellectual Property INPI is an institution related to intellectual property, its online website (www.inpi.gov.br) provided informations about registered companies brands, patents, geographical indications and designations of origin. The Cadastur is a registration system (available on the website www.cadastur.turismo.gov.br) for individuals and providers of tourism services. The ABETA is an association that registers physical and legal entities providing services related to adventure tourism through the website www.abeta.tur.br. The research in INPI platform was based on documents referring to brands related to Ecotourism in Brazil using Ecotourism as a keyword. In ABETA were surveyed, nationwide, the companies registered in the aspect Tourism Attractions. On the website of Cadastur were surveyed the companies in the State of Sergipe-Brazil registered on the aspect Tourism Agencies. The keywords were chosen due to the closer link with outdoor activities in three aspects, the company's brand, activities offered and ecotourism agencies services.
Study population and sample
It comprises companies registered on the platforms of the INPI, ABETA and Cadastur with the keywords Ecotourism, Tourist Attractions and Tourism Agencies, respectively. Inclusion criteria were applied during the process of research, which were only used words in order to compare the services of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism. The keywords were Ecotourism, Tourism Attractions and Travel agencies in their online platforms, INPI, ABETA and Cadastur. In addition, relevant information was exported, according to the purpose of the research, such as brand name / company identification number, name of the person responsible, objective situation of the process / company, specification of activities offered and the city-state of services offered.
Source and working tool
The search for information was made through the computer, accessing online data at three different sites. These data were exported to an Excel table and using specific formulas, there was the preparation of graphics in order to compare Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism activities.
On the INPI online platform, the research began with the search for brands related to Ecotourism. 97 companies registered nationwide with 83 being in the service nature, 12 in product and 2 certifications were found. There was no direct specification of activities related to Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism. But a closer look Adventure Activities was included in the rating NCL 41, courses, leisure, cultural and sports activities. This classification, which includes sports activities, is presented in Figure 1 as the second most common session offered by companies registered in INPI, with 17 (18%) of 97 companies. Activities such as transport, packaging and storage of goods, travel arrangements were embraced at the largest percentage of registered companies (48%).
Figure 1. Ecotourism-related brands on INPI platform.
Research on the Cadastur site began with the demand for registered providers as "Tourism Agencies". These agencies classified some segments of tourism, such as Nautical Tourism, Sun and Beach Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Adventure Tourism, Studies and Exchange Tourism, Ecotourism, Sports Tourism, Business Tourism and Events and Rural Tourism. They found 169 operating companies offering travel agency services on the online platform of Cadastur in Sergipe. Among those 169 companies, just one offered services related to Adventure Tourism, Sport and Ecotourism, the other companies were related just to one aspect of the three.
In Sergipe, 79 companies offer services of Ecotourism, Adventure Tourism and / or Sport. In the Figure 2, the graph shows that the Ecotourism presented in 49% of registered companies, the Adventure Tourism in 34% and the Sports Tourism in 17% of registered companies.
Moreover, Cadastur platform differentiates the Sport Tourism, Adventure Tourism and Ecotourism, and provides opportunities to the entrepreneurs specifically choose which segment their companies fit.
Figure 2. Ecotourism, Sports Tourism and Adventure Tourism registered on the Cadastur site relating to tourism agencies.
In this platform there is no requirement to specify which activities are offered, but the goal of the activities offered should be prepared. Among the objectives are described in ABETA, Operator Receptive Tourism Attractive, Operator Specialized Activity, Event Company, Travel Agency, Tour Operator Specialized. Figure 3 shows the analysis of companies registered as tourist attractions, it was possible to find that only 6 (22%) of the 27 companies offered Ecotourism as the main activity, while the adventure / sports activities were included in 21 programs (78%) of the companies registered in ABETA.
Figure 3. Tourist Attractions in ABETA platform
The aim of this study was to analyze the nomenclatures of physical activity offered in nature through national websites related to Intellectual Property, Adventure Tourism and Tourism within the state of Sergipe in Brazil. It is true that there is a remarkable expansion of terms associated with lack of supervision of them and their duties in the activities practiced in nature. Pimentel (2013) defends in his work that the emergence of new terms related to activities in nature is useless when the true essence of the activity is not known. Considering the diverse terms for similar activities in nature, the lack of supervision of the ABNT regarding the term Adventure Tourism encourages the development of more terms that confuse practitioners and encourage entrepreneurs.
According to the results obtained from the analysis of brands related to Ecotourism, it is clear that few Ecotourism Companies are associated with the group courses, leisure, cultural and sports activities. Whereas there is the opportunity to register the company's brand at INPI relating it to sports practice, we believe that there is convenience in merging activities called Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism Activities in Nature, as this process is based on wider range of public and consequently higher profits for companies.
Following this analysis, it is unreasonable to assume that the providers of ecotourism services generate higher profit when add physical activity and sports in their planning. Dias & Vital (2014) analyzed the current supply of Ecotourism activities in Pernambuco and investigated 18 companies in the ecotourism industry of the state. They realized that the companies surveyed worked in Ecotourism / Adventure Tourism interface, where it was offered not only the contemplation of opportunity of nature, but also the practice of adventure activities, sports or not, in nature such as hiking, rappelling and tree climbing. Therefore, Ecotourism companies can also offer physical adventure activities, adding value to your product.
The Cadastur portal allows its users to choose what types of services they offer specifically, Ecotourism, Adventure Tourism and / or Sport Tourism. Among the 169 companies, only one offers the 3 services. Also, we realize that most of the companies (49%) choose the Ecotourism term to define their services. We can assume that even if the registration base offers the 3 terms, the word Ecotourism can be considered as a multipurpose word, since by no strict supervision, companies can use it even when dealing with physical activity in previously planned nature. Similarly, Abeta & Mtur (2009, p.33) find that in theory the small differences between Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism are clear, but in practice the two activities are confused, for example, short or long walks offered by ecotourism companies can have a contemplative approach to people with better physical fitness, or it can be characterized as adventurous activity for people with low physical capacity. So, we noted the greater public coverage and higher profits for companies when choosing a wide meaning word.
In the portal ABETA is noticeable the difference when it comes to registration serving companies of adventure activities specifically. In the analysis of companies registered as Tourist Attractions, we perceived the choice of the term adventure tourism in 21 companies (78%). Note that the Ecotourism when not mixed with physical activity gives rise to the growing range of sporting activities and adventure in natural environments. In contrast, companies specializing in adventure activities, having their specific registration site for this activity, have the ability to provide greater clarity, certainty and trained professionals for specific activities.
Through the results we can predict that there is no clarity in the terminology of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, and thus we see the need to standardize the terms of outdoor activities to avoid ambiguity and imprecision as service offerings. Moreover, Marinho (2001) argues that professionals from different areas (Ecology, Geography, Physical Education, entrepreneurs and others) should seek to share knowledge about how they work and thus discover ways to keep humans together nature, putting in practice the "triad perfect": leisure, nature and adventure. Among the shared knowledge, it can encourage discussion about what procedures to be taken in relation to lack of standardization of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism terms and disorderly emergence of other settings for similar activities.
Moreover, by omitting the word Adventure of services, and highlight Ecotourism, it can mitigate the risk of printing the word adventure brings with it. Thus, there is greater scope public when it is inserted two activity profiles, Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism. Companies that act as providers of sports services and / or adventure, somehow omit the word "adventure" in the brand or company service. Abeta & Mtur (2009, p.33) argue that professionals working in the linked area Adventure Ecotourism, although well know the little difference between such areas, use the Ecotourism term in their company to not scare customers with the term adventure.
Olivera (1995) uses the term AFAN and characterized it as individual practice that is generally based on actions like walking on natural surfaces, where the balance is necessary to avoid falling, and the speed is used concomitantly with the natural energy such as wind and gravity, thereby constituting the controlled risks that are based the adventure. In addition to these qualities, there is the psychological impact of such actions (Carnicelli-Filho, 2007). Similar to those features, De-Bortoli et al. (2015) suggest using the term Ecofitness that is characterized by allowing physiological and psychological changes beyond the insertion ecological values and respect for the environment. Looking at those characteristics, Ecofitness brings the general characteristics of other terms, allowing a wider range of activities and avoiding misunderstandings about the outdoor activities.
In short, Ecofitness could be an appropriate term to encompass activities of Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, and other sub-categories that are characterized as outdoor physical activities. Thus, it would be possible to reduce the misconception regarding to the type of activity, standardize the use of terms in the companies register platforms, reduce the negative connection to the risks and thus encourage both practitioners as entrepreneurs.
Although precise statements in this study, it is necessary to have more research to confirm the need to standardize the terms in the online records relating to outdoor activities. It should be noted that this work also suggests that more rigorous inspection as the performance of companies that offer services Ecotourism and Adventure Tourism, aiming to reduce risk through standardized services and trained professionals. The limitation in this study is the search for terminologies and standards carried out only in Brazil. Therefore, although not studied in other countries, it is possible to defend the use of the term Ecofitness in Brazil.