Presumed guilty until proven credible: epistemic injustice toward Venezuelan immigrants in Colombia


  • Allison Wolf Universidad de Los Andes



epistemic injustice, immigration, Venezuelan, Colombia, epistemic oppression


With few exceptions, philosophers working on immigration have not taken up the topic of epistemic injustice, primarily, I imagine, because immigration justice is often too narrowly conceived of as encompassing moral and political concerns rather than epistemic ones. But the more I think about the injustices immigrants endure on a daily basis, the more I take this to be a mistake; epistemic injustices must be seen as a central aspect of immigration injustice too. In what follows, I will demonstrate how this is the case. More specifically, after providing an overview of the nature of epistemic injustice, I will highlight some examples of it in the lives of displaced Venezuelan immigrants in Colombia. In doing so, I hope to show why discussions about immigration injustice must include identifying and confronting epistemic wrongs.


= 1188 veces | HTML
= 21 veces| | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 114 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Allison Wolf, Universidad de Los Andes

es una profesora asociada en el departamento de filosofía en la Universidad de los Andes e investigadora en el Centro de Estudios Migratorios de la misma institución. La profesora dicta cursos en filosofía feminista, filosofía social y política, y la filosofía latinx y latinoamericana. Sus intereses de investigación principales incluyen la filosofía de inmigración en las Américas desde una aproximación feminista, la ética de la sexualidad, la filosofía feminista, y la bioética. Es autora del libro Just Immigration in the Americas: A Feminist Account (2020) y co-editora del Applying Jewish Ethics: Beyond the Rabbinical Tradition (en prensa).


Almost 2,000 Venezuelan refugees murdered in Colombia in five years, NGO says. (2021, June 24). France 24. venezuelan-refugees-murdered-in-colombia-in-five-years-ngo-says

Arnson, C. (2019, July 26). The Venezuelan refugee crisis is not just a regional problem: Latin American neighbors are pulling more than their weight. Foreign Affairs. https://www. regional-problem

Ayola, C. (2019, October 27). Mujeres Migrantes. El Heraldo. de-opinion/claudia-ayola/mujeres-migrantes-675683

Banchon, M. (2018, June 7). EU lawmakers issue call to take in Venezuelan migrants. https://

Barómetro de Xenofobia registró aumento de 731% en discursos de odio en Colombia. (2021, August 22). La Republica. xenofobia-registro-aumento-de-731-en-discursos-de-odio-en-colombia-3220818

Baddour, D. (2018, August 20). Ecuador shuts its border to Venezuelan refugees amid historical exodus. The Washington Post. the_americas/ecuador-shuts-its-border-to-venezuelan-refugees-amid-historic- exodus/2018/08/20/28223fec-a48c-11e8-ad6f-080770dcddc2_story.html

Bahar, D. and Dooley, M. (2019, December 9). Venezuela refugee crisis to become the largest and most underfunded in modern history. Brookings Institute. https://www.brookings. edu/blog/up-front/2019/12/09/venezuela-refugee-crisis-to-become-the-largest-and- most-underfunded-in-modern-history

Collins, J. (2019, August 26). Venezuelans stranded as Ecuador imposes new visa rules. Al Jazeera News. imposes-visa-rules-190826134509203.html

Collins, J. (2019, September 17). Why you don’t want to be a Venezuelan woman right now. The New Humanitarian. femicide-maternal-mortality-rates-rising

Detienen a expolicía que habría violado a venezolana en Sabanalarga (Atlántico). (2017, September 29). El Pulzo. violado-venezolana-PP357490

Dotson, K. (2011). Tracking epistemic violence, tracking practices of silencing. Hypatia, 26(2), 236-257. Dotson, K. (2012). A cautionary tale: on limiting epistemic oppression. Frontiers: A Journal of

Women’s Studies, 33(1), 24-47.

Dotson, K. (2014). Conceptualizing epistemic oppression. Social Epistemology: A Journal of Knowledge, Culture, and Policy, 28(2), 115-138. co/10.1080/02691728.2013.782585

Eckenweiler, L. (2019, June 12). Seeking asylum: epistemic injustice and humanitarian testimonies. Justice in Global Health Emergencies & Humanitarian Crises. uk/seeking-asylum-epistemic-injustice-and-humanitarian-testimonies/

Fricker, M. (2007). Epistemic injustice: power & the ethics of knowing. Oxford.

Granados, M.O. (2019, July 3). Double risk for LGBT+ venezuelan migrants crossing into Colombia.

Worldcrunch. migrants-crossing-into-colombia

Grattan, S. (2020, February 13). Venezuelan migrants face rising xenophobia in Latin America. The New Humanitarian. Venezuelan-migrants-xenophobia-Latin-America

Guarascio, F. (2019, June 24). Asylum applications in EU Rise as more venezuelans seek refugee.

Reuters. eu-rise-as-more-venezuelans-seek-refuge-idUSKCN1TP0LQ

Guzmán, S and Ponce, J.C. (2020, November 10). Hate against venezuelans in Colombia is a ticking time bomb. The Global Americans. hate-against-venezuelans-in-colombia-is-a-ticking-time-

Hill Collins, P. (1999). Black feminist thought. Routledge.

Ibáñez, A.M., Rozo, S and Bahar, D. (2021, November). Empowering mogrants: impacts of a migrant’s amnesty on crime reports. World Bank Group. https://documents1.worldbank. org/curated/en/808711635942502374/pdf/Empowering-Migrants-Impacts-of-a-Migrant- s-Amnesty-on-Crime-Reports.pdf

Knight, B and Tribín-Uribe, A. (2020). Immigration and violent crime: evidence from the Colombia- Venezuela border. Borradores de Economía, 1121.

Kurmanaev, A. and González, J. (2019, August 5). Colombia offers citizenship to 24, 000 children of Venezuelan refugees. New York Times. americas/colombia-citizenship-venezuelans.html

Maldonando, C, Londoño, J and Ospina, F. (2019). Migrantes venezolonas en Colombia: barreras de acceso a la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres. Bogotá, Colombia.

Moloney, A. (2019, August 8). Is South America closing its ‘open door’ on Venezuelans? Reuters. closing-its-open-door-on-venezuelans-idUSKCN1UY27D

May, V. (2014). Speaking into the void: intersectionality critiques and epistemic backlash. Hypatia, 29(1), 94-112.

Medina, J. (2017). Varieties of hermeneutical injustice. In I. J. Kidd, J. Medina, and G. Pohlhaus, Jr. (Eds), The Routledge

Handbook of Epistemic Injustice (pp. 41-52). Routledge.

Memes Ran-Damn, Facebook. (2019, September 20,) memesrandamn/posts/1154990624694804/

Migración Colombia, Distribución Venezolanos en Colombia, August 2021, https://www. 31-de-agosto-de-2021

O’Toole, M. (2019, June 5). Venezuela, now a top source of U.S. Asylum claims, poses a challenge for Trump. Los Angeles Times. venezuela-asylum-immigration-20190605-story.html

Otis, J. (2020, December 29). Large venezuelan migration sparks xenophobic backlash in Colombia. NPR. migration-sparks-xenophobic-backlash-in-colombia

Palacios, C. (2019, June 12). Paren de parir. El Tiempo. columnistas/claudia-palacios/paren-de-parir-columna-de-claudia-isabel-palacios- giraldo-374742

Pertuz, J.L. (2020, October 29). Claudia López propone deportar ‘sin contemplación’ a venezolanos que cometan crímenes en Bogotá. BluRadio. blu360/bogota/no-quiero-estigmatizar-a-venezolanos-pero-unos-nos-estan-haciendo- la-vida-cuadritos-claudia-lopez

Pohlhaus, Jr., G. (2017). Varieties of epistemic injustice. In I. J. Kidd, J. Medina, and G. Pohlhaus, Jr. (Eds), The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Injustice (pp. 13-26). Routledge.

Pohlhaus, Jr., G, Medina, J, and Kidd, I.J. (2017). The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Injustice. Routledge.

Proyecto Migración Venezuela. (2019, November 8). Aparecen panfletos amenazantes contra venezolanos en Boyacá. Proyecto Migración Venezuela. web/articulo/aparecen-panfletos-con-amenazas-a-los-venezolanos-en-ventaquemada- boyaca/1566

Roller, E. (2018, June 21). Trump implies asylum seekers are liars, so it’s not hard to see where this goes next. Splinter. liars-so-its-not-hard-1827016969

Stott, M and Gideon, L. (2020, February 18). Venezuela: refugee crisis tests Colombia’s stability. Financial Times.

Téllez, J. (s.f.). “Migrar y parir: dar a luz lejos de casa.” Poder Parir. https://violenciaobstetrica. co/migrar-parir-mujeres-venezolanas/

Wolf, A. B. (2020). Just Immigration in the americas: a feminist account. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Xenofobia en Colombia: se incrementan crímenes contra migrantes venezolanos. (2021, December 13). El Nacional. incrementan-crimenes-contra-migrantes-venezolanos/

Zulver, J. (2019, February 26). At Venezuela’s border with Colombia, women suffer extraordinary levels of violence. Washington Post. politics/2019/02/26/venezuelas-border-with-colombia-women-suffer-extraordinary- levels-violence/



How to Cite

Wolf, A. (2022). Presumed guilty until proven credible: epistemic injustice toward Venezuelan immigrants in Colombia. Estudios De Filosofía, (66), 223–243.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.