Investigación y Educación en Enfermería 2022-11-12T11:20:45-05:00 María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez Open Journal Systems <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Print ISSN: </strong>0120-5307</li> <li class="show"><strong>Online ISSN: </strong>2216-0280</li> <li class="show"><strong>Periodicity:</strong> quarterly</li> <li class="show"><strong>Open Access</strong></li> <li class="show"><strong>Creative Commons licence:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">by-nc-sa</a></li> </ul> Lived Experience of Iranian Family Caregivers of Tubercular Patients: A Qualitative Study 2022-11-11T16:29:33-05:00 Zinat Mohebbi Raziye Dehbozorgi Giti Setoodeh Marzieh Momennasab Naval Heydari Maryam Shaygan <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To investigate the lived experience of family caregivers of persons with tuberculosis. </p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> In this study, the method of hermeneutic phenomenology. Data were collected through online in-depth semi-structured interviews with nine family caregivers of TB patients. The obtained data were thematically analyzed to explain the concept of home care for TB patients through van Manen's 6-step methodology.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> After the thematic analysis, three main themes of caregivers'; mental distresses, quality care stasis, and<br />facilitated care were obtained from 944 primary codes and 11 categories.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Family caregivers of these patients suffer from mental distress. This issue affects the quality and ease of caregiving for these patients. Therefore, policymakers of this area should pay attention to the family caregivers of these patients and attempt to provide support; they should try to improve their quality of life.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Efficacy of Motivational Interviewing and Brief Interventions on tobacco use among healthy adults: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials 2022-11-11T16:49:43-05:00 Rajesh Kumar Maya Sahu Tamar Rodney <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To assess the effectiveness of a brief intervention and motivational interviewing in reducing the use of different tobacco-related products in adults</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> For this systematic review, PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases were electronically searched for randomized controlled trials on the effect of a brief intervention and / or motivational interview on tobacco reduction among healthy adults published between January 1, 2011 to January 1, 2021. Data from eligible studies were extracted and analyzed. CONSORT guidelines were used to assess the quality of the studies by two reviewers for the included studies. The titles and abstracts of the search results were screened and reviewed by two independent reviewers for eligibility criteria per the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cochrane review criteria were used to assess the risk of bias in included studies.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> A total of 12 studies were included in the final data extraction of 1406 studies. The brief intervention and motivational interviewing showed varied effects on tobacco use reduction among adults at different follow-ups. Seven of the 12 studies (58.3%) reported a beneficial impact on reducing tobacco use. Pieces of evidence on biochemical estimation on tobacco reduction are limited compared to self-reports, and varied results on quitting and tobacco cessation with different follow-ups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The current evidence supports the effectiveness of a brief intervention and motivational interviewing to quit tobacco use. Still, it suggests using more biochemical markers as outcome measures to reach an intervention-specific decision. While more initiatives to train nurses in providing non-pharmacological nursing interventions, including brief interventions, are recommended to help people quit smoking.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Nursing Services in the First Level of Care in Colombia. Analysis of the Offer 2002-2020 2022-11-11T17:10:40-05:00 Genny Paola Fuentes Bermudez Oneys del Carmen De Arco Canoles <p><strong>Objective.</strong> This work sought to characterize the primary care nursing consultation services reported in the official systems of health services records in Colombia between 2002 and 2020.</p> <p><strong> Methods.</strong> This was a descriptive, cross-sectional,retrospective study. Node geographic analysis and descriptive statistics were performed for quantitative data from theSpecial Registry of Health Providers and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study identified 6079 nursing services of which 72% are outpatient, 95.05% are assigned to institutions providing health services, 99.75% are of low complexity, and 48.22% of the offer was created in the last five years. The nodes with the highest increase in the offer of services are Caribbean (n = 909) and Pacific (n = 499), while Amazon (n = 48) showed the lowest offer in the last five<br />years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Disparity is evident in the availability of services by region and node, in addition to a low liberal exercise to provide nursing care.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería "Comprehensive Care" Concept in Nursing: Systematic Review 2022-11-11T17:40:59-05:00 Alina Renghea Miguel Angel Cuevas-Budhart Hugo Yébenes-Revuelto Mercedes Gómez del Pulgar María Teresa Iglesias-López <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Integrated health care is a concept widely used in the planning and organisation of nursing care. It is a highly topical concept, but at the same time it is deeply rooted in the theory and models of Nursing right from its inception as a science. There is no clear, agreed definition that describes it.</p> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To systematise the knowledge available on the concept of "comprehensive care" in Nursing from the point of view of nursing care, its domains and characteristics. Methods. A literature search has been carried out in several languages (Spanish, Portuguese, English and Romanian) in the databases Web of Science, Scopus, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and Dialnet, covering the period between 2013 and 2019. The search terms used were: comprehensive health care, health and nursing. Prospero register 170327.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Sixteen documents were identified, which grouped 8 countries, mainly Brazil, being the<br />country with the highest output on this context– 10 documents were found within the qualitative paradigm and 6 quantitative ones. The concept "Comprehensive" ; is commonly used to refer to comprehensive nursing care techniques, protocols, programmes and plans, covering care in all aspects of the individual as a complement to or independent of the clinical needs arising from health care.</p> <p><strong> Conclusion.</strong> The definition of features pertaining to the concept "Comprehensive Care" ; encourages the use and standardisation of nursing care plans, improving patient follow-up, the detection of new risk factors, complications and new health problems not related to the reason for admission. This increases the capacity for prevention and improves the patient’s quality of life, and their primary and/or family caregivers, which translates into lower costs in the health system.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Effect of Benson's relaxation technique on caregiver burden in caregivers of hemodialysis patients. A Randomized Controlled Trial 2022-11-11T18:01:21-05:00 Mahsa Imanian Somayeh Ramezanli <p><strong>Methods.</strong> This is a randomized controlled trial study on 52 caregivers of hemodialysis patients referred an universitary hospital at Jahrom. The caregivers were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, Benson's relaxation was performed twice a day for 15 minutes each time, and continued for one month. Data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire and standard Zarit Burden Interview questionnaire which was completed by all participants before the intervention and one month after it.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> After the intervention, the mean caregiver burden of hemodialysis patients in the intervention group decreased significantly compared to the control group (p&lt;0.001). The results of paired t-test showed that in the intervention group, the mean scores of caregiver burden after the intervention (14.46± 10.91) was significantly lower than before the intervention (38.33±16.94) (p=0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Benson's relaxation method can reduce caregiver burden in caregivers of hemodialysis patients.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Experience of Caring as Source of Abductive Reasoning in Nursing: a Pragmatic Vision 2022-11-11T18:19:07-05:00 Virginia Inés Soto Lesmes Jaime Alberto Ramírez Niño Luz Stella Bueno-Robles <p>The aim of this reflection article consists in proposing a methodology that makes visible the epistemic practice through abductive reasoning for the generation of knowledge from an experience of caring. For such, the work describes the connections between the science of nursing and inter-modernism, develops the idea of the nursing practice as source of knowledge, and defines the components of abductive reasoning for the practice. Finally, the work presents an academic exercise developed within the framework of the assignment Evaluation of the theory for research and practice in the PhD program in nursing at Universidad Nacional de Colombia on how a theory was developed from a situation of care and its scientific usefulness upon generating in patients a sense of fullness in their health and in nursing professionals, satisfaction with their work.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding in mothers of babies cared for in a kangaroo family program 2022-11-11T19:03:32-05:00 Isabel-Cristina Giraldo-Marín Natalia Andrea Henao Murillo María Camila Londoño Rodríguez Manuela Aguirre Torres Gabriel Jaime López Palacio <p><strong>Goal.</strong> To determine the factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding in mothers of babies cared for in a<br>kangaroo family program.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Quantitative, observational study with a secondary source of a retrospective cohort of 707 babies with monitoring at admission, at 40 weeks, at three and at six months of corrected age in the kangaroo family program of a public hospital in the municipality of Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia) from 2016 to 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> 49.6% of babies were born with low weight for gestational age and 51.5% were female. 58.3% of the mothers were unemployed and 86.2% of them lived with their partner. When entering the kangaroo family program, 94.2% of the babies received breastfeeding and at six months they were 44.7%. The variables that were associated with the duration of breastfeeding up to six months according to the explanatory model were: the mother's cohabitation with her partner (adjusted prevalence ratio - APR: 1.34) and receiving breastfeeding when entering the kangaroo family program (APR: 2.30).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The factors related to the duration of breastfeeding in mothers of babies cared for in the kangaroo family program were that the mother lived with her partner and that the mother was breastfeeding when she entered the program, therefore they received education and support from the interdisciplinary team, which could favor confidence and willingness towards breastfeeding.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Types of analysis of validation studies in nursing: scoping review 2022-11-11T19:37:51-05:00 Flávia Barreto Tavares Chiavone Fernanda Belmiro de Andrade Anderson Felipe Moura da Silva Isabelle Campos de Azevedo Quenia Camille Soares Martins Viviane Euzebia Pereira Santos <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To identify and map the types of analysis in nursing validation studies.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> This is a scoping review with collection carried out in July 2020. The following data extraction indicators were considered: year of publication, country of origin, type of study, level of evidence, scientific references for validation and types of analyses. Data were collected in the following bases: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, Web of Science, PSYCHINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, CAPES Theses and Dissertation Portal, Education Resources Information Center, The National Library of Australia's Trobe, Academic Archive Online, DART-Europe E-Theses Portal, Electronic Theses Online Service, Open Access Scientific Repository of Portugal, National ETD Portal, Theses Canada, Theses and dissertations from Latin America.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The sample consisted of 881 studies, with a predominance of articles (841; 95.5%), with a prevalence of publications in 2019 (152;17.2%), of Brazilian origin (377; 42.8%), of the methodological study type (352; 39.9%). Polit and Beck stood out as the methodological reference (207; 23.5%) and Cronbach&amp;#39;s Alpha (421; 47.8%) as the statistical test. Regarding the type of analysis, the exploratory factor analysis and the content validation index stood out.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The use of at least one method of analysis was evident in more than half of the studies, which implied the need to carry out several statistical tests in order to evaluate the validation of the instrument used and show its reliability</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Effect of Fear, Concern, and of Risk Factors for Complicated Covid-19 on Self-Care in People in Pre-elderly and Elderly Stages 2022-11-11T19:57:12-05:00 Josué Arturo Medina-Fernández Isaí Arturo Medina-Fernández Nissa Yaing Torres-Soto Luis Carlos Cortez-González Fernanda Guadalupe Rascón-Arriaga Diana Berenice Cortes-Montelongo <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The work sought to determine the effect of the risk factors, fear, and concern on self-care regarding COVID- 19 in people in pre-elderly and elderly stages.</p> <p><strong> Methods.</strong> Correlational-predictive study, gathered through convenience sampling. The study applied the scale of fear of COVID-19 (Huarcaya et al.), the scale of concern about COVID-19(Ruíz et al.,), and the scale of self-care during the COVID-19 confinement (Martínez et al.,). Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied as the mediation model based on regression.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The study&nbsp; had the participation of 333 people, with the majority being women (73.9%). Correlation was found between self-care with the scores from the scale of fear (r = -0.133, p &amp;lt;0.05) and of concern (r = -0.141, p&amp;lt;0.05) regarding COVID-19. The direct effect of the model wasc’ = 0.16, [95% BCa CI = -0.28, -0.09]. The standardized value for the indirect effect was estimated as c = -0.14, [95%BCa CI=-0.23,-0.09]), which shows existence of a 14.0% effect of the mediating variable on self-care conducts in the prediction model.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> A direct effect exists of risk factors for COVID-19 complication on self-care, mediated by concern and fear, besides explaining by 14% the self-care conducts for COVID-19. Recommendation is made to address other emotional variables to consider if these increase the prediction.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Effectiveness of the application of an educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Adopting Preventive Behaviors from Self-Medication among Women in Iran. A rRandomized Controlled Trial 2022-11-11T20:28:41-05:00 Ehsan Movahed Monireh Rezaee Moradali Mohammad Saeed Jadgal MoradAli Zareipour Mina Tasouji Azari <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of an educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in Adopting Preventive Behaviors from Self- Medication among Women in Iran.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Interventional study with pre and post phases. 200 women referring to the health centers of Urmia were selected by simple random sampling, divided into two groups of treatment and control. Data collection instruments were researcher- devised questionnaire including the questionnaire of Knowledge of Self-medication, the Questionnaire of Preventive Behaviors from Self medication, and the questionnaire of Health Belief Model. The questionnaires were assessed for expert validity and then, were checked for reliability. The educational intervention was conducted for the treatment group during four weeks four 45-minute sessions.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The average scores of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficiency, and post-intervention performance in have increased in treatment group, comparing to the control group, All findings were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Furthermore, social media, doctors, and disbelief in self- medication were more effective in increasing awareness and encouraging to have proper medication, also, the highest self-medication was in taking pain-relievers, cold tablets and antibiotics, which showed significant decrease in treatment group after the intervention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The educational program based on Health Belief Model was effective in reducing the self-medication among the studied women. Furthermore, it is recommended to use social media and doctors to improve the awareness and motivation among people. Thus, applying the educational programs and plans according to the Health Belief Model can be influential in reducing the self-medication.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Adaptation by Men to the Nurse Role. "Being Craftsmen in the Construction of their Professional Trajectory" 2022-11-11T20:53:53-05:00 Sandra Milena Velásquez Vergara María Elisa Moreno Fergusson Edgar Orlando Arroyave Álvarez Jasmín Viviana Cacante Caballero <p><strong>Objective.</strong> This work sought to describe the adaptation process by men to the nurse role.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Secondary analysis of data from a collective case study that had as participants 12 male nurses working in the city of Medellín, with ages between 28 and 47 years and average time of professional experience of 11 years. Information collection was carried out through in-depth interviews. The analysis was conducted through Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM), reading of the interviews, identification of RAM’s components, grouping of fragments, assignment of tags, construction of a matrix and classification.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The analysis performed accounts for the coping processes and adaptation by male nurses and the ineffective responses (control of emotions and emotional silencing) when practicing a role considered feminine.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> In this study, it was possible to establish that, to achieve adaptation within nursing, men use strategies related with changes in bodily appearance, management of physical strength, and management of emotions.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Reflections on nursing students’ fear and anxiety arising from clinical practicums 2022-11-11T21:24:10-05:00 Agostinho Antônio Cruz Araújo Simone de Godoy Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura Ítalo Rodolfo Silva Emerson Willian Santos de Almeida Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes <p><strong>Background.</strong> Anxiety and fear are emotional responses that may emerge when individuals anticipate threats. Undergraduate nursing students may experience feelings of hopelessness and anguish in the clinical learning experience, directly impacting their academic performance. This study aims to reflect upon the fear and anxiety faced by nursing students during clinical training.</p> <p><strong>Synopsis of Contents.</strong> Two thematic axes were focused: Students’ perception regarding preceptorship attitudes and positions; Relational teaching-learning processes and their influence on the students’ professional identity. Preceptors are expected to encourage the establishment and maintenance of good relationships in the collaborative network in which students are included, especially with the multi-professional health team, to have more comprehensive academic support.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The role and importance of each individual in academic training, such as students and professors, is emphasized, seeking to promote positive experiences in the teaching-learning process to enable undergraduate students to more effectively develop moral sensitivity and take responsibility for patient-centered care.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Adaptive modes of adult men during COVID-19: qualitative analysis under Roy's model 2022-11-11T22:04:57-05:00 Vinícius de Oliveira Muniz Anderson Reis de Sousa Thiago da Silva Santana Alisson dos Anjos Santos Ramon Evangelista Luz Eric Santos Almeida Isabella Félix Meira Araújo Evanilda Souza de Santana Carvalho <p><strong>Objective.</strong> This study aims to understand how adult men adapt to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Qualitative study involving 45 adult men residing in Brazil in 2020. Data were obtained from a Web Survey and treated using Reflective Thematic Analysis and interpreted in the light of Callista Roy's Adaptation Model.</p> <p><strong> Results.</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic mobilized in men the ways of adaptation that are configured in: mobilization of the physiological-physical and regulatory dimension: adjustments in the sleep pattern, dietary pattern, and maintenance of physical activity; group self-concept identity: managing emotions; role function: self-knowledge and self-care; interdependence: adjustments in the marital relationship, family ties and paternity, investment in training and studies and control of excessive consumption of content on cell phones.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> The perception of the own vulnerability favored the entry of men into ways of adaptation in search of balance during the pandemic, motivating them to move through practices of taking care of themselves and taking care of others. Markers of psycho-emotional distress alert to adherence to new modes of care capable of promoting healthy ransitions in the face of disruptions and uncertainties generated by the pandemic. This evidence can support the establishment of goals for nursing care aimed at men.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Care Perceptions in two ICU Nursing Care Delivery Models: A qualitative-comparative approach 2022-11-11T22:38:47-05:00 William Iván López Cárdenas Natalia Andrea Henao Murillo Esteban Gil Vidal Rosa Milena Altamirano Ceron Yuly Andrea Santa Mejía Adriana Cristina Jurado Jiménez <p><strong>Objective.</strong> Analyzed in compared perspective perceptions about nursing care, nurse-patient interaction, and nursing care outcomes in two ICU nursing staff in a high-complexity hospital institution, whose Nursing are Delivery Models (NCDM) are differentiated by the proportion of nurses and nurse assistants (NA) per team and by the assigned tasks and responsibilities.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Particularist ethnography with adaptation to virtual methodologies. It included the sociodemographic characteristics of 19 nurses and 23 NA, 14 semi-structured interviews, review of patients’ clinical records, and a focus group. Coding, categorization, inductive analysis, validation of results with participants were conducted and thematic saturation was achieved.</p> <p><strong> Results.</strong> Four themes were identified: i) Professionalized care: a nursing of superior value; ii) senses and feelings of care; iii) nursing workload, generating factors and impacts; and iv) nursing missed care as concrete expression of the nursing workload.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> Compared nursing teams perceived nursing care in different ways, since it was experienced based on the assigned responsibilities and the possibilities of interaction with patients. Nursing care in the NCDM of the ICU with prevalence of direct bedside care by nurses with support from NA, it was perceived as holistic, comprehensive, and empathetic; whereas in the ICU with prevalence of delegated care to NA, it was related with administrative leadership and management of the ICU. Regarding the results, the NCDM of the ICU of direct bedside care by nurses showed better performance in patient safety and was closer to the skill level and legal responsibility of the nursing staff.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Primary Health Care. Specific Nursing Leadership 2022-11-12T09:35:42-05:00 José Ramón Martínez-Riera <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The 1978 Alma-Ata International Declaration (Kazakhstan – former Soviet Socialist state),(1) was a turning point, at least regarding the conception of what was understood by primary health care (PHC) and what it should contribute to respond to the needs and demands of the population. The Declaration considered it, not only possible, but was aimed at achieving health for every country by the year 2000. The approaches to achieve this, although praiseworthy and difficult for anyone to reject, led to its signing by the 134 countries and 67 international organizations present at the meeting – highlighting the important absence of the People’s Republic of China-, the intention was to stop financing rearmament policies and support for military conflicts and direct policies to promote independence, peace, détente and disarmament, to use those resources in the social and economic development of the people and invest on PHC, as essential element to achieve it.</p> </div> </div> </div> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Openreuma Consensus on the role of nursing in the care of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and diffuse interstitial lung disease 2022-11-12T11:16:13-05:00 Laura Cano García María Jesús García de Yébenes Natalia Mena Vázquez José Ma Martín Martín Carmen Domínguez Quesada Silvia García-Díaz Ana Isabel Rodríguez Vargas Francisco Jiménez Núñez Francisco Espíldora Hernández Leticia León Mateos Ana Vázquez Lojo Elena Marcos Pérez Laura Castiblanco Loreto Carmona <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To develop practical recommendations, based on the best available evidence and experience, on the nursing management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and interstitial lung disease (ILD).</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The usual consensus methodology was used, with a nominal group, systematic reviews (SRs), and Delphi survey. The expert panel, consisting of rheumatology nurses, rheumatologists, a psychologist, a physiotherapist, and a patient, defined the scope, the users, the topics on which to explore the evidence and on which to issue recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Three PICO questions evaluated the efficacy and safety of pulmonary rehabilitation and non-pharmacological measures for the treatment of chronic cough and gastroesophageal reflux by means of SR of the literature. With the results of the reviews, 15 recommendations were established for which the degree of agreement was obtained with a Delphi survey. Three recommendations were rejected in the second round. The 12 recommendations were in patient assessment (n=4); patient education (n=4); and risk management (n=4). Only one recommendation was based on available evidence, while the remaining were based on expert opinion. The degree of agreement ranged from 77% to 100%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> This document presents a series of recommendations with the aim of improving the prognosis and quality of life of patients with RA-ILD. Nursing knowledge and implementation of these recommendations can improve the follow-up and prognosis of patients with RA who present with ILD.</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería Nursing Research, Dissemination of Knowledge and its Potential Contribution to the Practice 2022-11-11T15:30:18-05:00 R. Mauricio Barría P 2022-11-12T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Investigación y Educación en Enfermería