Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala <ul> <li class="show"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0123-3432</li> <li class="show"><strong>eISSN:</strong> 2145-566X</li> <li class="show"><strong>Periodicity:</strong> Quaterly</li> <li class="show"><strong>Creative Commons:</strong> <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/co/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">by-nc-sa</a></li> </ul> Universidad de Antioquia en-US Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura 0123-3432 Engaging in Decolonial ‘Pedagogizations’ at a Colombian Doctoral Teacher Education Program in English Language Teaching https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/348948 <p class="p1">Decolonial engagement in education is becoming geo and body politically multifaceted across the global south and north. It is witnessing the emergence of ‘pedagogies of crossing,’ <em>pedagogías insumisas</em> (unsubordinate pedagogies), and ‘trans/queer pedagogies,’ among others. Thus, decolonial engagement in education constitutes a fruitful epistemological site of struggle, fracture, and healing. This plurality situates the so-called pedagogizations within the decolonial turn. Pedagogizations, on the other hand, refer to actions <em>otherwise</em> rather than to the hold of colonialism in a designated field: Pedagogy. Decolonial pedagogizations remain underexplored in the literature on language teacher education, however. This article unearths and discusses how they are (co)constructed for and with English language teachers at a Colombian state university’s doctoral program that claims a south epistemological stance and seeks the decolonization of language teacher education. In this vein, this article adds to the literature reclaiming decolonial methodologies, or pedagogizations, in education and proposes that they include knowledge (co)construction processes otherwise such as <em>submerged guiding</em>, <em>deCUlonial voicing</em>, and <em>cultivating heterarchical relationships</em>. Yet, it also critiques these decolonial pedagogizations in language teacher education, embracing the diverse onto-epistemological constitution of graduate educational processes.</p> Harold Castañeda-Peña Pilar Méndez-Rivera Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 804 821 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a12 Critical Race and Decolonial Theory Intersections to Understand the Context of ELT in the Global South https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349004 <p class="p1">Critical race theory (CRT) questions social practices that have perpetuated discrimination and social inequality. Decolonial studies coincide with these efforts to deracialise elt practices, explaining racialisation as dominant structures constituted in whiteness-centred practices that situate some in disadvantage (usually non-white) while privileging others (usually white). In the context of English language teaching (ELT), that colonisation/racialisation can take the form of some hierarchisation of English native speakers from the Global North while otherising non-native speakers of English and native speakers of English from the Global South. Therefore, coloniality/racialisation are useful terms to explain practices that value foreign over local identities alienating regional/local views and languages. In this article, the links between CRT and decolonial theories are explored and colonisation/racialisation of ELT are approached through the analysis of macro and micro practices developed in two public universities, one in Colombia and one in Brazil. The aim is to disrupt those practices by making evident decolonisation/deracialisation efforts in undergraduate and graduate students’ proposals.</p> Sandra Ximena Bonilla Medina Kyria Finardi Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 822 839 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a13 Analyzing the Concept and Field of Inquiry of English as a Lingua Franca from a Decolonial Perspective https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349003 <p>Recent epistemological and ontological revisions demonstrate a change within the elf geopolitics of knowledge as voices from the global South begin to claim themselves as knowledge producers within a field strongly marked by the European hegemony. This article aims at analyzing the concept and field of inquiry of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) from a decolonial perspective. Founded on the work of one the authors and departing from the decolonial exercise of identification-interrogation-interruption, the article identifies the main ELF tenets, brings up different voices in the field, and interrogates who these voices belong to, and where they come from. Findings show a complex weave of meanings still marked by coloniality traces in which hegemonic European views place themselves as <em>hybris del punto cero</em> despite the multiplicity of ELF views and practices all over the globe. The authors advocate for attentive and critical reading of ELF, particularly, with regards to where knowledge is generated and who generates such knowledge if one wishes to delink from <em>self-assured</em> global north ELF epistemologies. They also propose a decolonial praxis in the reading of ELF as a pre-condition towards the interruption of coloniality.</p> Gabriela da Costa Rosa Ana Paula Duboc Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 840 857 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a14 Decoloniality in ELT: A Political Project https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/351221 Carmen Helena Guerrero Nieto Clarissa Menezes Jordão Gabriela Veronelli Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 586 594 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a01 Indelible Coloniality and Emergent Decoloniality in Colombian-Authored EFL Textbooks: A Critical Content Analysis https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349089 <p>The use of Colombian-authored EFL textbooks as subalternation instruments, the instrumentalization of grammar and foreign methodologies, and the imperialism of a profit-driven publishing industry perpetuates colonial links. This article reports a critical content analysis of six Colombian-authored EFL textbooks from local and foreign publishers. It was framed within a sociocritical paradigm, which included interviews with four authors, six teachers, and two editors. Findings reveal three triads of decolonial criteria: (a) The triad of ontological criteria unsettles the reproduction of foreign beliefs, behaviours, values, and ideologies; (b) the triad of epistemological criteria subverts North and West dominant knowledge and culture, and (c) the triad of power criteria withstands globalised and neoliberal discourses imposed through teaching methods, curricula, materials, testing, training, and standardised English varieties. The findings also indicate that there are still colonial traces in the representation of gender, races, sexual orientations, capacities, and social classes. Thus, developing efl materials from a decolonial perspective contests the commercial, standardised, and colonised textbooks to build contextualised and decolonised efl materials otherwise that are sensitive to cultural diversity. This academic endeavour exhorts teachers to assume a critical stance towards EFL materials content, learning activities and strategies, underpinning language pedagogies, iconography, language policy, and assessment practices, and to exert their agency to contest hegemony and recreate situated EFL pedagogical practices.</p> Astrid Núñez Pardo Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 702 724 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a07 Scholars Raising their Voices Up: Discourses of Hegemony and Resistance in ELT in Colombia https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349071 <p>In the last few years, Colombian ELT scholars have become aware of the importance of discourse for the dissemination of ideologies and agendas. As a result, the number of studies on this area has shown an unprecedented growth. Nevertheless, few investigations have explored and analyzed both sides simultaneously so as to display not only the types of hegemonic discourses that have permeated the field but also those which have recently emerged in response to such a situation. Considering these elements, this paper reports on a qualitative case study carried out with the purpose of analyzing the latest types of hegemonic discourses and discourses of resistance that have taken place in elt in Colombia. After analyzing the data gathered, which consisted of empirical and conceptual articles, as well as linguistic policies emitted by the Colombian Ministry of Education (MEN), the results showed that discourses revolving around bilingualism (understood as the English-Spanish relationship), identity, and native speakerism have been a recurrent aspect in the Colombian elt field. Yet, findings also suggest that, especially in the last decade, elt scholars have been resisting these discourses by promoting alternative ones that acknowledge initiatives in different areas of knowledge. In light of these aspects, it is recommended to keep resisting and promoting an agenda of decolonization so that alternative discourses, as is the case of those that acknowledge the incorporation of epistemologies that have been historically overlooked, continue gaining traction within the field.</p> Jhon Eduardo Mosquera Pérez Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 725 743 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a08 Voices from the Aboriginals: A Response from the South Aimed at Southing Language Education https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/348977 <p>Teaching-learning languages can be a means to keep hierarchies and erasures while promoting supporting and problematizing settings. At the same time, the production of teaching materials helping indigenous subjectivities and wisdoms to overcome the walls of educational institutions can be considered as a highly significant process, with the potential to help join articulated social forces and movements aiming to change the above mentioned reality. Drawing on this assumption, we aim to analyze how aboriginal peoples and indigenous literatures are addressed in a volume of a teachers’ collection titled <em>Critical Education Routes For English Teachers</em>, to discuss its potential to <em>southing language education</em>, and to delve into the analysis of notions about language, identities and literatures informing the textbooks. Besides, we assess the depth of discussions brought about and the potential (re)production of derogatory repertoires, as well as unique narratives about aboriginal peoples. We understand this teaching material provides an innovative proposal that allows us to contribute to training socially engaged teachers, aware of different identities, wisdoms, cultures, and epistemologies. Thus, it is noteworthy that, even though the material has not been designed based on decolonial tenets, it becomes a response from the South devoted to promoting a critical approach engaged with social issues. The material suggests a broadening of movements towards identifying, claiming, and disrupting colonial hierarchizations, invisibilites, and unfeasibilites that have become part of ourselves. It also helps us build realities otherwise.</p> Ana Paula Marques Beato-Canato Rogério Back Vera Lúcia Lopes Cristovão Paula Francescon Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 744 762 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a09 Learning for or Learning with: Avaliar se Avaliando for an ELT Assessment Otherwise https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/348999 <p>We are two teachers engaged with English language teaching (ELT) from a critical perspective. As many other instructors who share this same line of thought, we have felt discomfort throughout our careers when evaluating students. Students, in turn, have also experienced the triggering of emotions, such as insecurity and imposterism when facing a test. This happens because there is still a predominance of structuralist, modern, and positivist assumptions in teaching, and more evidently, in assessment. With this background, we turned our attention to assessment in a more critical way, trying to develop a project that challenged the traditional, hegemonic, and normative paradigms in elt and proposed an alternative otherwise. This is how, at a language center from a Federal University in Brazil, we decided to explore a different way of doing assessment by asking students to collaboratively create booklets during one semester. In this article, we present and reflect on the approach we took. We conclude by arguing that assessment can be seen as a movement of <em>avaliar se avaliando</em>, a practice characterized by the reflexivity of teachers and students throughout the process.</p> Camila Haus João Victor Schmicheck Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 764 782 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a10 English Instructors Navigating Decoloniality with Afro Colombian and Indigenous University Students https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349009 <p class="p1">As English spreads globally, it continues to displace local languages and cultures at all levels of education. Concerned with this issue, in this article we report our experiences as English instructors attempting to decolonize English lessons to embrace the diverse cultures, languages, and realities of Indigenous and Afro-Colombian students enrolled in English courses at a public university in Medellín, Colombia. To attain this, we framed lessons from a decolonial, critical intercultural (ci) perspective and strived to interrogate language ideologies and cultural power relations by inviting students’ languages and cultures to the classroom. The experience suggests that sustaining local languages and cultures through English entails the production of teaching materials that contest the erasure, homogenization, and misrepresentations of Black and Indigenous peoples. It also implies positioning students as experts on their cultures and as text producers, all of which provides a broader understanding of intersectionality in Indigenous and Black communities.</p> Claudia Patricia Gutierrez Maure Aguirre Ortega Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 783 802 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a11 Entretejidxs: Decolonial Threads to the Self, the Communities, and EFL Teacher Education Programs in Colombia https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349012 <p>In addressing the 21st century neocolonial research condition, in this article the authors firstly discuss how academia in general, and ELT in particular, may configure as oppressive colonizing sites. Secondly, they introduce their experience as pre-service and in-service educators who took part in pedagogy of possibilities (POP) at a university in Tunja, Colombia. Indigenous principles like interconnectedness and relationality and Chicanx/Latinx concepts, such as <em>bodymindspirit</em>, path of <em>conocimiento,</em> and spiritual activism were foundational to these educators’ POP. To them, pedagogy was a political act to resist the disembodied/disengaged/dispassionate nature of teaching/researching/being in academia and beyond. This four-year critical-community autoethnography uses testimonies, journals, and artistic creations as knowledge-gathering methods to analyze how decolonizing teaching-research practices informed the re-signification of these educators’ personal and professional identities. Theoretical coding revealed that POP permitted participants to engage in decolonial practices of self-recognition, re-construction, empowerment, growth, and healing. The analysis also revealed that decolonizing the self leads to adopting a positionality where values such as care and respect for one’s self and communities are paramount to moving forward social-justice-critical-decolonial agendas. The results suggest the need to re-signify pedagogical and educational practices in ELT beyond neo-liberal agendas, which propose rankings, individualism, and competition.</p> Nancy Emilce Carvajal Medina Flor Ángela Hurtado Torres Mónica Yohanna Lara Páez Mariana Ramírez Sánchez Harol Arley Barón Gómez Dayana Alexandra Ayala Bonilla Cristian Moisés Coy Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 596 626 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a02 Disrupting Colonial Tensions in Initial Language Teacher Education: Criteria Based on Critical Interculturality https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349090 <p>Colombian English Language Teaching (ELT) is experiencing a paradigmatic change guided by the decolonial turn. This turn has enriched the debate about the implementation of a bilingual policy in Colombia, its impact on languages other than English, the purposes of learning English in the country, and English teacher practices and identities. This article shares the results of a critical ethnography that collected data from students and teacher educators from elt preparation programs and institutional and legal documents. Results indicate that, in Colombian elt, there are six discursive tensions representing coloniality. These are (a) English teachers as instructors or as educators; (b) native or non-native English speakers; (c) poor image of foreign language teachers as opposed to an idealized language teacher; (d) instrumental or cognitive and intercultural purposes for learning English; (e) emphasis on disciplinary knowledge or on interdisciplinary knowledge; and (f ) division or integration between theory and practice. To counter these tensions, a set of criteria are proposed. These criteria are: (a) elt preparation graduates are professionals in language pedagogy; (b) they are multilingual educated teachers; (c) they are well-rounded professional educators; (d) English is a means of recognizing diversity; (e) elt preparation programs embrace interdisciplinarity as a decolonizing option; and (f ) ELT preparation programs promote praxis. To conclude, the criteria proposed aim to shift initial language teacher education from an instrumental vision to a reflexive one, considering what is being learned, how, with whom, in what contexts, and the reasons that justify it.</p> Carlo Granados-Beltrán Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 627 645 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a03 Knowledges on Conflicts and Reconciliations in EFL Preservice Teachers' Pedagogical Practicum https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/348981 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">This article analyzes and documents the pedagogical knowledge about conflicts and reconciliations that emerges in the pedagogical practice of two efl student-teachers working in educational institutions in Bogotá, Colombia. The study used narrative events of the experiences of the teacher-trainees in conflictive pedagogical contexts. These experiences were analyzed through a narrative approach, from a decolonial perspective, to address localized forms of knowledge that are alternative to hegemonic knowledge production structures. The results show that from practices based on the recognition of the other, the understanding of conflict as connatural to the subjects and the dialogue between traditional Western language pedagogies and other pedagogies in the classroom, the student-teachers began to fracture traditional logics in the teaching of EFL. This allowed them to reconfigure the construction of their students as social subjects and the teaching of English as a humanizing social practice. These results suggest that it is necessary for teacher training institutions to make more visible the knowledge-generating experiences of student-teachers in their pedagogical practice.</span></p> Edgar Augusto Aguirre-Garzón Diego Ubaque-Casallas Adriana Salazar-Sierra Maria Eugenia López-Hurtado Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 646 662 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a04 Teaching Foreign Languages at the U-Diversity: Exploring Pathways Towards Decoloniality and Critical Interculturality https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349022 <p class="p1">This article presents the findings of the implementation of a teacher professional development course carried out with 17 teachers of English, French and other foreign languages at a public university in Colombia. Its objective was to explore critical interculturality by promoting reflection on teachers’ practices and the construction of more equitable teaching proposals in their classes. This initiative, framed as a qualitative action research study, was guided by the ideas of decolonial thinking and critical interculturality. Data collection methods included interviews, recordings of course sessions, foreign language lesson plans, and participant reflections. The findings reveal that teachers developed understandings of interculturality as a process of equity building, intimately linked to the negotiation of identities and traversed by power relations. These results suggest that professional development spaces for teachers can contribute to the construction of an intercultural project in the field of foreign languages that is respectful and consistent with Colombian and Latin American realities, problems, and diversities, that strengthens the production of situated local knowledge, and that dialogues with knowledges from other regions.</p> Janeth María Ortiz Medina Fabio Alberto Arismendi Gómez Paula Andrea Londoño Ceballos Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 663 683 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a05 Language-Code or Language-Verb? A Decolonial Look at the English Language Classroom https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/349011 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">In times of neoliberal globalization, English language has filled a hegemonic space as the language of communication, science, business, media and education. This space, naturalized by issues of power, politics and coloniality, tends to ignore questions such as who can speak English, what variety is validated and to whom it belongs, for example. Faced with this problem, we conducted a qualitative research study in a university setting on the initial training of teachers, and the public school on the continuing education of teachers. Our goal was to investigate how the conception of language and, therefore, of the English language, shaped and re-signified the practices of the participants in the research conducted in the aforementioned contexts. The study was based on critical and decolonial perspectives, especially those stemming from the reflections produced by the Latin American Research Group Modernity/Coloniality. The reflections underscored the tensions between the conceptions of language as a code or as a social practice in the participants’ imaginaries and practices in both contexts of teacher training. These tensions suggest that the ambivalent and situated space of the English classroom is productive for the deconstruction and expansion of knowledge, as well as for the reconfiguration of the function of education and the roles assumed by teachers and students in their training.</span></p> Jhuliane Evelyn da Silva Isabel Cristina Vollet Marson Copyright (c) 2022 Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-16 2022-09-16 27 3 684 700 10.17533/udea.ikala.v27n3a06