Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala <ul> <li class="show"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0123-3432</li> <li class="show"><strong>eISSN:</strong> 2145-566X</li> <li class="show"><strong>Periodicity:</strong> Quaterly</li> <li class="show"><strong>Creative Commons:</strong> <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/co/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">by-nc-sa</a></li> </ul> Universidad de Antioquia en-US Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura 0123-3432 Role of Technology in Language Teaching and Learning amid the Crisis Generated by the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/347512 Marta González-Lloret Laia Canals Jorge Eduardo Pineda Hoyos Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 26 3 477 482 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a01 Adapting an Undergraduate Multiliteracies German Curriculum for Online Instruction During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345551 <p>This article reports on the adaptation of an undergraduate German curriculum for a distance language education (dle) context. Understanding that dle has evolved over the course of decades, the article reviews literature describing pedagogical and technological developments that are fundamental to understanding current practices in dle. Against this backdrop, a detailed methodology is presented that explains the pedagogical practices that were adopted and adapted following the pandemic-induced shift from classroom-based teaching to dle. Special attention is devoted to the role of synchronous instruction, as well as asynchronous tools that support multiliteracies instruction. The article concludes by considering those curricular innovations that are likely to have a long-lasting impact on the delivery of instruction following a return to classroom-based teaching.</p> D. Joseph Cunningham Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 749 765 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a15 Dual Immersion Digital Instruction: A Theoretical Model for Equitable and Inclusive Classrooms https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345247 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Dual immersion programs have proven effective in achieving biliteracy for all students. However, maintaining equitable practices at the core of such programs has become more challenging in remote learning due to the pandemic. It is necessary, therefore, to revise some of the benefits and challenges of digital instruction mediated by technology in these settings. Using a middle school Dual Immersion (di) program in Southern California as a background, and from the perspective of bilingual education teachers and professors, this article presents a theoretical model called Dual Immersion Digital Instruction (di2) that could serve that purpose. The model includes the five dimensions involved in just, equitable, and inclusive education: Technological, content, social, linguistic, and pedagogical. The article also analyzes the pedagogical opportunities and challenges that teachers in di programs face in regards to each of these dimensions when all instruction becomes fully online. Finally, the article discusses how the shift to online teaching in di classrooms could impact bilingual teacher education programs.<br></span></p> Jordi Solsona-Puig María Capdevila Gutiérrez Fernando Rodríguez-Valls Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 767 782 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a16 Rapport in the Foreign Language Classroom: From Face-to-Face to Online in Times of Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345433 <p>As shown in previous studies, positive teacher and student rapport increases motivation and performance in foreign language learning. This study investigated the impact of three forms of interaction on the development of teacher-student and student-student relationships in a Spanish as a Foreign Language classroom that transitioned from face-to-face (FtoF) to online due to the emergence of the covid- 19 pandemic. These forms of interaction were positive comments, corrective feedback, and personal thematic discourse. The participants were students from six different beginner-level Spanish courses at a university in Hawai’i. Because of covid restrictions, half of the semester was conducted FtoF and half online. Data were collected through a three-part questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions which explored the impact of the online and FtoF setting and forms of interaction on rapport. The results reveal the importance of corrective feedback and positive comments on the development of positive teacher-student rapport, and of positive comments and personal thematic discourse on student-student rapport. The study suggests the need to bring qualities from the FtoF classroom to online, such as a sense of a more personal experience, ability to connect, ease in asking questions, receiving feedback, and greater interaction.</p> Shayna Katz Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 26 3 485 511 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a02 "And My Screen Wouldn't Share": Student-Teachers' Perceptions of ICT in Online Teaching Practice and Online Teaching https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345437 <p>The sudden switch to online teaching enforced by the covid-19 pandemic has impacted teacher education at universities, particularly micro-teachings and teaching practice, as technology has become an inherent part of these processes. The growing body of literature on online teaching and teacher education during lockdown conditions mainly addresses challenges in teacher education and educator perceptions. However, very few studies deal with the perceptions of student- teachers. To fill this gap, a group of teacher educators conducted a research study with 63 students enrolled in a master’s Degree in Teaching efl for Secondary Schools offered at Masaryk University, Czechia. To carry it out, qualitative coding procedures were employed on a dataset of 120 lesson reflections written by students completing their teaching practice via online courses which were ordinarily conducted in person. The purpose was to find out how student-teachers perceived technology use when teaching online. The main findings show that, despite constant comparison between the face-to-face and online classrooms and an initial reliance on the success of technology to determine a lesson’s success, the majority of student-teachers normalized technology as a platform for teaching, using technology-specific language for teaching strategies and classroom events. These findings suggest that online teaching and learning should be seen as an integral part of teacher education.</p> Nicola Fořtová Jitka Sedláčková František Tůma Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 26 3 513 529 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a03 Spanish Adult Students’ Intention- Behaviour Toward MOOCs During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/344991 <p>Many Spanish students need to learn English beyond the age of 25 to be able to find a job or be further promoted. Unfortunately, those who attempt to pass a university entry-qualifications test often lack the required academic level. To help them achieve this goal, they are usually provided with learning materials and supportive digital resources. During the covid-19 pandemic, the need for online resources increased. This is why the National Distance Education University offered a massive open online course (mooc) on elementary English. The main goal of this contrastive qualitative study was twofold: First, it attempted to explore adult students’ intention-behaviour while taking the course. Secondly it delved into students’ satisfaction with this type of courses during two different years: 2017 and 2020 when the pandemic had a clear impact on distance education. For this purpose, the study used a comprehensive post-questionnaire given at the end of both courses. The data revealed a few significant differences regarding students’ satisfaction, intentions, perceptions, and interests in contexts where face-to-face-learning was not an option. These findings suggest that mooc should be considered as an alternative way to build specific content in situations of crisis.</p> Maria Ángeles Escobar Alvarez Julie Ciancio Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 26 3 531 551 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a04 FL Pre-Service Teachers' Psychosocial Aspects and Educational Conditions During the COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345248 <p>Face to the global health contingency due to covid-19, educational settings around the world have become a “research laboratory” in which technology-mediated teaching-learning processes have gained increasing importance. This research had as a main goal to identify the psychosocial aspects and educational conditions that influenced the degree of learning satisfaction of 423 students enrolled in a ba in Modern Languages (English and French) at a university in Colombia that employed technology-mediated ‘face-to-face’ learn­ing (pat, as per its Spanish acronym). Data were collected through open-ended questionnaires, focus groups and participant observations, and were analyzed following the qualitative data analysis stages proposed by Miles et al., and McCracken’s (1988) coding processes. Findings show that students’ learning satisfaction is highly influenced by teacher’s support and structural conditions. These two categories have an impact on other psychosocial conditions that become a challenge for the pat technology. The results show the need for a pedagogical reflection that helps instructors unify criteria for an appropriate implementation of this methodology.</p> Jacqueline García Botero Gustavo García Botero Margarita Alexandra Botero Restrepo Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 553 569 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a05 Language Learning in the Time of COVID-19: ELT Students’ Narrated Experiences in Guided Reflective Journals https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345419 <p>This article presents the results of a qualitative study of the lived experiences and emotional responses regarding language learning of 29 students in a bachelor's degree in English language teaching (elt) offered at a public university in central Mexico. The study was grounded in sociocultural theory and was carried out at a time when the students' classes changed overnight to online learning due to the worldwide covid-19 pandemic. In this program, students learn a foreign language within a theoretical framework of second language acquisition (sla) and document their language learning experience (lle) through reflective journals. One month into the new online modality, they were asked to write in their journals about a historical artifact that would represent their experience dur­ing the pandemic for a historian 100 years in the future. A constant comparative method of analysis of their narrated stories reveals the challenges faced and ensu­ing emotions: from overwhelming anxiety to youthful optimism. These results provide an appreciation of students’ complex emotions regarding their language learning process while in the midst of a worldwide pandemic and highlight the importance of creating activities that promote reflection.</p> Amanda Wilson M. Martha Lengeling Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 571 585 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a06 Malaysian English Language Teachers’ Agency in Using Digital Technologies During the Pandemic: A Narrative Inquiry https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345655 <p>With the closure of schools due to imposed lockdowns in many parts of the world, teachers had to make a rapid transition from teaching in physical classrooms to online teaching, even though they had little to no experience teaching online prior to the pandemic. Adopting a narrative inquiry approach, this study aims to explore the factors that influence Malaysian English language teachers’ professional agency in adapting to online teaching. Data were collected via interviews with ten secondary school teachers from rural and urban schools. The findings show how factors such as teachers’ perceptions of the affordances of digital tools and existing support structures influence teachers’ enactment of agency in online teaching and learning. They also demonstrate teachers' agentic potential to adapt their lessons to suit their learners’ needs. These findings suggest the need for teacher professional development programs to recognize teacher agency in the design of future training modules. This involves providing a differentiated training curriculum that can support and sustain language teachers’ development organically by taking into consideration their existing technology skills, teaching experiences and work contexts.</p> Azlin Zaiti Zainal Siti Zaidah Zainuddin Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-10 2021-09-10 26 3 587 602 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a07 Teaching English Online During the National Lockdown: Students’ Perceptions and Experiences at a Spanish University https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345297 <p>The outbreak of the covid-19 pandemic in Spain was a major challenge for universities offering face-to-face education since these were compelled to adjust to online teaching in an extremely brief time span. This article aims to offer a compre­hensive picture of the repercussions that such a sudden immersion in full virtual mode had on instrumental English subjects taught in different undergraduate programs at Universidad de Alcalá in Spain. The profile is based on the data collected from: (a) a survey with 159 respondents enrolled in English courses in the faculties of Philosophy and Arts, and of Economics, Business and Tourism; and (b) a subsequent discussion group, including the authors of the study and a deliberately selected number of respondents. Both methods were used to delve into core aspects of language teaching such as: (a) skills acquisition, (b) assessment methods, (c) the usefulness of the ict tools employed in the classroom, or in-class, and (d) interactions between students and between students and teachers in this exceptional context of unforeseen remote education. Results underscore the problems this scenario entails for the practice and acquisition of skills such as oral performance, class participation, or the management of teamwork and interpersonal relationships. They also pinpoint certain benefits related to an enhanced knowledge and handling of ict tools. Finally, they give instructors insight into the digital applications and assess­ment instruments which were more and less highly valued by students.</p> Bruno Echauri Galván Silvia García Hernández María Jesús Fernández-Gil Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 603 621 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a08 “A Stressful Unknown” or “an Oasis”?: Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions of Assessment in an In-Class and Online English Phonetics Course https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345556 <p>The sudden need to switch from traditional in-class instruction to online teaching and assessment due to the covid-19 pandemic has posed considerable challenges to teachers, but also to learners. The mixed method study reported in this article compared Polish undergraduate students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses to assessment provided in two practical English phonetics courses taught during an in-class fall semester and online spring semester. The quantitative data were collected by means of an online questionnaire, which consisted of three categories of semantic differential scales referring to the cognitive, affective, and behavioural responses. The qualitative data consisted of drawings, open-ended surveys, and individual interviews with the students. The t-test results showed significant differences in students’ perceptions in terms of cognitive and behavioural aspects. The qualitative data revealed that although the students highly valued formative assessment in the course, the online mode weakened their engagement and interest in receiving feedback. It was also observed that students’ perceptions of in-class and online assessment were shaped largely by their individual differences and learning preferences. The study underlies the importance of using anxiety-lowering techniques in both in-class and online classes, and the need for fostering undergraduate students’ autonomous learning skills.</p> Anna Czura Małgorzata Baran-Łucarz Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 623 641 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a09 Face-to-Face and Virtual Academic Writing Tutoring Sessions: What Can Be Learnt from their Didactic Strategies? https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345441 <p>In Spanish-speaking settings, newly-emerged writing tutoring centers have seen the need to adapt to emergency remote education due to the health emergency brought about by covid-19. However, there is lack of evidence regarding how writing tutoring actually works under this education modality. Drawing on the above, this article aimed to analyse the didactic strategies used by two peer tutors in both face-to-face writing tutoring sessions that occurred before the pandemic and online sessions taking place during the pandemic, after having undergone a specific training program. Data were collected through a quantitative-qualitative approach, and the maxqda software was used to do a content analysis of 16 tutoring session (8 face-to-face and 8 online) transcriptions. Findings show a prevalence of cognitive approaches, mainly questioning; along with instructional approaches, such as suggestion and explanation. Nonetheless, differences are perceived between the various types of tutoring sessions, along with a trend toward a more student-centered approach in online tutoring sessions. These results suggest online tutoring sessions are a useful alternative when accompanying the writing process in university students.</p> Juan Antonio Núñez Cortés María Constanza Errázuriz Adrián Neubauer Esteban Claudia Parada Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 643 660 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a10 University Language Instructors’ Preparedness for Technology-Mediated Instruction and Burnout During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345428 <p>This quantitative study explored the preparedness of foreign language teachers for technology-mediated instruction and the burnout conditions that characterized their transition from in-person to off-campus second/foreign language education during the covid-19 pandemic. The data were collected from 104 university instructors through a Google Forms® survey and a burnout questionnaire in a Mexican state which was severely hit by the virus in the spring of 2020. The survey elicited information about institutional conditions, teacher education and technology access and use. The burnout questionnaire explored exhaustion, depersonalization and accomplishment during off-campus technology-mediated language instruction. Both survey and questionnaire answers were subject to frequency analyses. In terms of teacher preparedness, data analyses revealed that the participants had a large number of teaching hours; they held sustained computer/Internet access but lacked technology-assisted language teaching training; thus, they independently sought out technological resources for the delivery of their lessons. With regard to burnout, data analyses indicated that many participants experienced exhaustion due to work overload, use of technology, and its proper integration in the lessons. Nonetheless, the use of technology helped them maintain interest in their learners, feel satisfaction and accomplish academic aims.</p> Jesús Izquierdo María del Carmen Sandoval Caraveo Verónika De la Cruz Villegas Rubén Zapata Díaz Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 661 695 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a11 Pedagogical Strategies Used by English Teacher Educators to Overcome the Challenges Posed by Emergency Remote Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345459 <p>The crisis in the education system generated by the appearance of covid-19 revealed the multiple gaps that exist due to the diversity of contexts to which students and teachers belong. This article reports on a case study which explored the challenges English teacher educators (tes) at a public university in Neiva, Colombia faced during the pandemic due to the imposition of emergency remote teaching (ert), the pedagogical strategies they used to respond to these challenges, and the ones that remain. To do this, data were collected from a questionnaire and a focus group with tes and pre-service teachers (psts) from the language teacher education program. The main findings show that the transition from classroom teaching to ert brought some challenges for tes and their trainees related to the social realities existing in the context of the latter. To respond to these challenges, tes had to adjust their teaching strategies and learn to use some technologies such as videoconferencing software and educational apps. Still some challenges remain for the future, such as enhancing pst’s motivation, autonomy and classroom interaction. The study suggests the need to continue training language tes on the use of ert technologies and to find more and better ways to promote autonomous learning processes to adapt teaching practices to current times.</p> Jairo Enrique Castañeda-Trujillo María Fernanda Jaime Osorio Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 697 713 10.17533/udea.ikala/v26n3a12 Teaching English Online to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Down Syndrome During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345449 <p>The unprecedented reality of the covid-19 pandemic has led students and teachers to adapt to new routines and technological resources so that they can meet the pedagogical requirements generated by this world sanitary emergency. This case study explored a methodological intervention with students from an English school for special needs students in Manizales (Colombia). Our team of two university professors and seven pre-service teachers provided online English lessons to 17 students with autism spectrum disorder (asd) and 13 with Down syndrome (ds). To do it, we used the principles of universal design for learning (udl) and an eclectic method which combines strategies from thre specific approaches: The Presentation, Practice, and Production approach (ppp), the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication-Handicapped Children (teacch) approach and a behavioral management approach. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of the implementation of such strategies on the English Language Learning (ell) process of the asd and ds learners. Three data collection techniques, including two surveys to parents and a researcher journal, were used. Findings indi­cated that: (a) the combination of various stimuli and methodological strategies from a variety of approaches enhanced learning, (b) the use of images and pictograms fostered memory, (c) setting clear routines promoted self-regulation skills, and (d) the families and students’ challenges were turned into opportunities. It was concluded that teaching English online to asd and ds students requires knowledge of their conditions and suitable strategies from an eclectic instructional approach.</p> Zoila Liliana Giraldo Martinez Sigrid Andrea Ramos Carvajal Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 715 730 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a13 Powerful Pedagogies in Times of COVID: An Online Pedagogical Collaboration Between EFL Students and ESL Teacher Candidates https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ikala/article/view/345623 <p>In the context of the global covid-19 pandemic, educators at all levels had to re-imagine their teaching practices to respond to the necessity of conducting all courses on-line. This article reports on the collaboration of two university instructors to create a trans-national model of learning in the context of the covid-19 pandemic. By virtue of this collaboration, the efl students based at a large public university in Colombia were engaged in four online sessions and paired with teacher candidates taking an esl endorsement course in the United States. This online collaboration afforded the Colombian efl students an authentic opportunity to practice their English learning and the us teacher candidates a meaningful context in which to conduct authentic language assessments. Using interview and questionnaire data, this qualitative case study explored the experiences of the efl students. The data demonstrate that online exchanges can afford students meaningful opportunities for language development. The results further show that online learning can be enriched through mutually beneficial collaborations across universities and transnational contexts.</p> Sarah L. Cohen Daniel Calderon Aponte Copyright (c) 2021 Íkala 2021-09-11 2021-09-11 26 3 731 745 10.17533/udea.ikala.v26n3a14