Viref Revista de Educación Física

Instituto Universitario de Educación Física y Deporte

ISSN 2322-9411Abril-Junio 2021 • Volumen 10 Número 2

Strengthening the physical health of preschoolers by means of fitball

Natalia Mishchenko1

Elena Romanova 2

Alexander Skaliy3

Tetiana Skaliy4

Witold Kowalski5

1PhD. Associate professor in the Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Education, Ural State University of Physical Culture, Russian Federation. numishenko@yandex.ru

2PhD. Associate professor in the Department of Physical Education, Altai State University, Russian

Federation. romanovaev.2007@mail.ru

3PhD. Institute of Sport and Physical Culture, University of Economy in Bydgoszcz, Poland. skaliy@wp.pl

4PhD. Department of Theory and Methods of Physical Education, Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University, Ukraine. tatiana.skaliy@byd.pl

5PhD. Institute of Sport and Physical Culture, University of Economy in Bydgoszcz, Poland. wiciukow@interia.pl

Abstract

Problem: the article highlights the problem of improving modern methods of strengthening the physical health of preschool children, the importance of using modern fitness methods to strengthen the muscles of the spine, the formation of correct posture at an early stage of development of children. One of the ways to solve the problems of children's health improvement and prevention of various disorders in the formation of the spine and skeletal muscles of young children is proposed: fitball aerobics classes, as a type of fitness aerobics

22using large gymnastic balls - fitballs. Objectives: to characterize fitball-aerobics, as preschool children’s innovative means of physical education, to develop a methodology for the complex effects of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities of preschool children’s age, to determine its effectiveness. Method: the research was conducted in the period from 2016 to 2018 on the basis into educational organizations of preschool education in Chelyabinsk. Children of preschool age took part in the aged 5-7 years. A total of 40 children participated in the experiment (20 in the control group, 20 in the experimental group). The work done does not infringe on the rights and does not jeopardize the well-being of schoolchildren in accordance with the ethical standards of the Committee for the Rights of Experiments of the Helsinki Declaration. Parental consent to examine children was obtained. A methodology developed and tested was used for the complex effect of aerobic fitball exercises on the development of physical abilities in preschool children.

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Results: the results of the study confirmed the hypothesis put forward (the developed methodology for the complex effect of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities preschool children will be effective). Conclusion: Physical Education based on the use of fitball-aerobics elements have a positive impact on the development of physical abilities of preschool children aged 5-7, motivates to engage in physical culture and sports. At the end of the pedagogical experiment, the children of the experimental group showed significantly higher results than peers from the control group.

Keywords: Physical Education, Physical abilities, Fitball aerobics, Physical fitness, Motor development, Preschool children.

Introduction

Preschool age children protection and promotion health, improving child’s body functions and its full physical development are an integral part of pedagogical work in educational organizations of preschool education. Meanwhile, in preschool age, already a significant part of children (68%) experience multiple functional disorders, 17% of children acquire chronic diseases, and only one out of three children remains healthy (Kuchma, 2006; Stepanova , 2006). Preschooler’s health indicators analysis over the past decade has revealed unfavorable trends: the first group of health, including healthy children with normal physical and mental development, without anatomical defects, functional and morphofunctional abnormalities, decreased by 2.7 times (from 15.6 to 5.7%), while the number of the 3rd health group, which consisting of children with chronic diseases, with physical disabilities, with an intellectual disability (Protic & Válková, 2018), the consequences of injuries and operations (from 11.8 to 26.9%), increased by 2,3 times. Most children (60-70%) in all age groups have 3-4 morphofunctional deviations, only 10-20% of children have 1-2 deviations (Lobanov et al., 2019). An alarming is increase in the number of children with five or more morphofunctional abnormalities, the leading ones being disorders of the musculoskeletal system and cardiovascular functions, digestive organs, allergic diseases (Paranicheva, 2008).

One of the ways to solve the problems of children's health and various diseases prevention is fitball aerobics –a type of fitness aerobics using large gymnastic balls (fitballs) (Saikina & Kuz'mina, 2008; Mishchenko & Badretdinova, 2019; Pesina & Mishchenko, 2019). Exercises on fitballs create a healing effect, which is confirmed by the experience of specialized correctional (Symonik et al., 2018) and rehabilitation medical centers in Europe and Russia. They make it possible to solve various problems in the complex due to the inclusion in the work of simultaneously motor, vestibular, auditory, visual, tactile and olfactory analyzers (Bedran, 2016).

Thus, they positively affect the physical and psycho-emotional state of those involved and are of great interest in children (Saikina & Kuz'mina, 2011; Veselovskaya, Sverchkova, Levchinkova, 1998).

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The effectiveness gymnastic exercises with fitballs use in practice of preschool children’s physical education and recovery is confirmed by numerous scientific studies of doctors, teachers and psychologists (Borisova, 2012; Denisenko, 2014; Kolesnikova, 2005; Zakharova, 2013). However, studies aimed at studying the complex effects of fitball-aerobics on the development of physical abilities, healing and improving the psycho-emotional state of preschool children’s are clearly not enough.

In this regard, the relevance of the study is caused by the following contradictions:

The request of society in a healthy harmoniously developed rising generation and preschool children’s low level of health, physical development and physical abilities;

The wide possibilities of fitball-aerobics classes impact on the body of those engaged in order to solve various problems and the lack of methodology development the complex effects of fitball-aerobics exercises on increasing the level of physical fitness, improving health status, and creating a steady interest in physical exercises;

The practice of introducing fitballs into educational organizations of preschool education of various types and kinds, and the lack of software and methodological support for fitball-aerobics classes.

The purpose of the study is to develop and determine the effectiveness of the methodology for fitball-aerobics exercises complex effects on the development of physical abilities preschool aged children’s. The object of study is the preschool aged children’s process of physical education, and the subject of the study is the complex effect of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities of children of preschool age.

Research hypothesis: the developed methodology for the complex effect of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities preschool children will be effective if:

Fitball-aerobics are used in all forms and types of work on the physical education of preschool children’s, adequate to the age characteristics of children aged 5-7 and the actual state of those involved;

The developed complexes of fitball-aerobics have a different orientation, plot, they are conducted under musical accompaniment;

The properties of fitball (color, shape, size, elasticity, smell) are taken into account; the multifunctionality of its use (as a support, object, weighting device, simulator, obstacle, massager, landmark).

Research objectives:

1.To characterize fitball-aerobics, as preschool children’s innovative means of physical education.

2.To establish factors determining the complex effect of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities of children of preschool age.

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3.Determine the fitball aerobics used in the physical education of preschool children.

4.To develop a methodology for the complex effects of fitball-aerobics exercises on the development of physical abilities of preschool children’s age, to determine its effectiveness.

Methods

The research was conducted in the period from 2016 to 2018 on the basis into educational organizations of preschool education No. 366 "Korablik (Ship)" in Chelyabinsk. Children of preschool age took part in the aged 5-7 years. A total of 40 children participated in the experiment, 20 in the control group and 20 in the experimental group. The work done does not infringe on the rights and does not jeopardize the well-being of schoolchildren in accordance with the ethical standards of the Committee for the Rights of Experiments of the 2008 Helsinki Declaration (WMA, 2013). Parental consent to examine children was obtained.

The experimental groups were engaged in the program of physical education for preschool organizations "Raduga (Rainbow)" by Grizik et al. (2005). The classes of the experimental group included fitball-aerobics exercises that contribute to the development of strength, flexibility, movements coordination and equilibrium functions. Physical exercises complexes in fitball-aerobics were developed taking into account the children’s age characteristics, their motor experience, the level of motor skills formation, i.e. were focused on children aged 5-

7.We spent daily assess-ment of physical activity, based on the experience of foreign researchers (Kondakov et al., 2020).

Results

The results of the study were subjected to statistical processing with the calculation of the arithmetic mean value, standard deviation, arithmetic mean error, student t-test, error probability according to the table of this coefficient (Grjibovski et al., 2003). In developing the exercises complexes, we relied on the classification of exercises proposed by Ovchinnikova & Potapchuk (2009).

The complexes included exercises:

Using various initial positions of children on fitball balls;

With a change in speed and pace of movement;

Using various methods of performing exercises;

Using coordinated movements in pairs and in a group (together, in a group, holding hands, sit down and stand up, perform turns, bends, jumps.

Table 1 presents the approximate number of classes using fitball balls.

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Table 1. The approximate number of lessons per month using fitballs, organized with preschoolers 5- 7 aged.

Forms of classes

Number of lessons per month

 

 

 

1

Morning hygienic gymnastics

5

2

Regular educational activity * physical education classes

2-3

3

Corrective gymnastics

8

4

Individual sessions

Of necessity

5

Independent motor activity

Of necessity

6

Sports activities, holidays, entertainment

1

7

Work “Fitball-aerobics” study group

2

 

 

 

Forms of using fitball with older preschool children in the process of organizing and conducting various types of physical education work are presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Forms of using fitball in the classroom with preschool aged children.

Variants for using fitballs in the preparatory part of a physical education (PE) lessons with older preschool children are presented in Figure 2.

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"Loose" walking between fitballs

Walking and tossing fitballs

Figure 2. Variants for using fitballs in the preparatory physical education (PE) classes with children preschool aged.

The options for using fitballs in the main part of the physical education (PE) lesson with older preschool children are presented in figure 3.

Lying on stomach on a fitball

Lying on the back with a fitball

Figure 3. Variants of using fitballs in the main part of PE classes with preschool aged children.

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