Viref Revista de Educación Física

Instituto Universitario de Educación Física y Deporte

ISSN 2322-9411Julio-Septiembre 2021 • Volumen 10 Número 3

Self-efficacy of physical education teachers and its relationship

to job performance and organizational commitment

Kenioua Mouloud, Nawal Krine

University of Ouargla, Algeria. moukenioua@gmail.com

Abstract

Objective: the study aimed to ascertain the relationship between self-efficacy, job

performance, and organizational commitment of physical education teachers. Method: 132 physical education teachers from educational institutions in Ouargla- Algeria participated in the study. The general self-efficacy scale, job performance and organizational commitment questionnaires were relied upon to collect data. Results: after statistical treatment by Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression, the results indicated that there was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and job performance, self-efficacy and organizational commitment among physical education teachers. Conclusion: self-efficacy can be predicted in according job performance and organizational commitment among physical education teachers. Future studies would preferably be about other psychological variables.

Keywords: physical education teachers, self-efficacy, job performance, organizational commitment.

Introduction

In the sixties of the last century, many studies indicated that physical education teachers did not participate in the academic and professional path of schoolwork, and their role was limited to teaching motor and physical skills; meaning, they were trainers rather than teachers (Hendry, 1975). But at present, physical education teachers are considered an essential part of the school system in all educational institutions, they encourage students to engage in physical activity, promote healthy eating habits, and help them develop communication and social relations (Shirotriya, 2011). Physical education teachers cannot fulfil their assigned roles until they are distinguished by good physical and functional capacities (Ocak, 2016), psychological skills such as extroverted personality, self-regulation, motivation, and self-efficacy (Schnitzius et al., 2019), communication and interaction skills (Demir, 2015), and management skills, such as job performance and organizational commitment (Liu & Huang, 2019).

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Bandura (1978) developed the self-efficacy theory within the framework of social cognitive theory, it was originally developed to find methods in the field of clinical psychology to treat anxiety, but it has been developed and integrated into other psychological fields such as behavior, health and physical education (Mouloud, 2018). Bandura (1982) defined self- efficacy as an individual's belief in his abilities to perform a specific qualitative performance, that is, the individual's belief or perception that he is competent and capable of success in performing a certain behavior. According to Bandura (1997) self-efficacy beliefs consist of four sources. The source most influencing self-efficacy is mastery experiences (previous performance achievements), which make the individual able to overcome various obstacles through effort and perseverance (Bandura, 1997; Maddaux, 1995). The second source of expectations of self-efficacy is Vicarious Experiences or observational learning through modelling (Feltz et al., 1979). During observational learning (watching individuals perform certain tasks), the individual tries to appreciate the relevant skills that he or she uses in performing a particular task, and also tries to deduce the amount of effort that would be required to reach the same results (Gist & Mitchell, 1992). Verbal persuasion is the third source of expectations for self-efficacy, which indicates the importance of encouragement and verbal rewards such as verbal praise, feedback (Villani et al., 2017). Emotional and physiological arousal (fourth source) such as tension, anxiety, and fatigue are the factors that reduce performance (Bandura, 1978; Crain, 2000). Various emotions such as anxiety, as well as levels of physiological arousal, must be adjusted in order to enhance self-efficacy (Mamassis & Doganis, 2004).

Despite the importance of job performance in the field of human resources, there is no comprehensive theory that it adopted and addressed its topics (Campbell et al., 1993; Deadrick & Gardner, 2008). In the mid-seventies, researchers expanded on the concept of job performance (Campbell et al., 1993); They focused on individual performance (Sonnentag & Frese, 2002), and behaviors of the individual (Mouloud et al., 2016). Job performance is all the behaviors that employees engage in on the job (Fogaça et al., 2018). It is also known at the micro level as the employee's actions and behaviors that contribute to the achievement of the organization's goals (Mouloud et al., 2016). But everyone agreed that it is an individual procedure and behavior in line with the organizational goals and objectives (Banerjee et al., 2020).

Organizational commitment is an important issue that ensures employees belong to their organizations (Güllü et al., 2020). The term organizational commitment was defined by different definitions due to the great importance that characterizes it in the fields of education, sociology, psychology, management, and sports (Yıldırım, 2015). Organizational commitment is the relationship that binds the employee to the organization to which he belongs (Trofimov et al., 2017). It is also defined the different attitudes of the employee, whether negative or positive, towards his organization (Kashefi et al., 2013). Dennis (1998) defined organizational commitment as the process that occurs between the employee and

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the work indicators (organization indicators) in order to achieve the required output. Allen and Meyer (1990) indicated that organizational commitment consists of three dimensions: affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. The emotional commitment dimension examines the psychological state that binds the employee to the organization (English et al., 2010); An employee with a strong emotional twin is formed in his large alienated hand in order to achieve the desired goals (Darolia et al., 2010). In continuance commitment dimension, an employee cannot risk the costs of losing organizational membership if he stops working in the organization (Yıldırım, 2015). Rather, the normative commitment looks at the ethical duty and the value system, especially since some organizations postpone payments and salaries due to difficult circumstances (Trofimov et al., 2017).

Previous studies confirmed that there is a relationship between self-efficacy, job performance, and organizational commitment (Agu, 2015; Liu & Huang, 2019); Self-efficacy is positively related to job performance (Lai & Chen, 2012; Miraglia et al., 2017), as well as with organizational commitment (Orgambídez et al., 2019; Sinha et al., 2002). Agu (2015) indicated that work and organizational commitment produced self-efficacy. However, the current study aims to ascertain the relationship between self-efficacy, job performance, and organizational commitment of physical education teachers. The following research hypotheses are formulated to guide the study:

HYP1: There is a (positive) correlation between self-efficacy and job performance, self- efficacy and organizational commitment.

HYP2: Self-efficacy can be predicted according to job performance and organizational commitment.

Method

Participants

The sample of the study consisted of 132 physical education teachers, who answered the electronic form1 from 28/07/2020 to 03/08/ 2020, belonging to educational institutions in Ouargla- Algeria. In terms of demographics, most of the participants were men (98.5%), with an average job experience of 12 years. Their academic level was 68,2% Master, 25.8% Bachelor, 6.1% others.

Instruments

The general self-efficacy scale (GSES) was used to collect Data. GSES contains 10 items, rated on Likert type scale from 1: not all true to 4: exactly true (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). The reliability and validity of GSES were confirmed on 33 language, including the environment language in the current study. Alpha Cronbach were between 0.76-0.90 with one-

1https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1HQmNwnCYCmKsaxY5JVi1RV9hlOInHEx72lhnjdDpoc4/edit

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dimensional scale (Scholz et al., 2002). Also, job performance and organizational commitment questionnaires were relied upon, where the first questionnaire consists of 14 items and the second one contains 15 items (Mouloud et al., 2016).

Statistical Analysis

Data analyses were applied by using the statistical packet for social sciences (SPSS) 26.00 software program. The Pearson Correlation and Linear Regression were used in the main study. Additionally, alpha-Cronbach was used in exploration study.

Findings

It was clear from Table 1 that there was a positive correlation between self-efficacy and Job performance (r = .283, P<0.01). And there was also a positive correlation between self- efficacy and Organisational commitment (r = .260, P<0.01).

Table. 1 Pearson correlation coefficients.

Scale / questionnaires

Self-efficacy

Job performance

Organisational commitment

Self-efficacy

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Job performance

.283**

1

 

 

 

 

 

Organisational commitment

.260**

.404**

1

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 2. Regression results.

R square

.105

 

 

F value

7.55

 

 

F (signifiance)

.000

 

 

Beta of job performance

.214

 

 

Beta of Organisational commitment

.172

 

 

VIF factor

1.19

R square: the coefficient of determination; VIF: variance inflation factor.

The results of the regression model demonstrated that there was significant relationship between self-efficacy and the explanatory variables. This can be inferred from the T value and its associated P value. The explanatory variables explain 10.50% of variation in self- efficacy showing the strength of relationship between self-efficacy and independent variables are low. By referring the F value and its P value, it may be concluded that the model

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is valid and there is a correlation between dependent and independent variables. To verify the existence of the mentioned relationship, a multicollinearity test was carried out. The results revealed the VIF (variance inflation factor) of the model was (1.191 < 3) indicating the non-existence multicollinearity problem.

Thus, the results indicated the follow equation:

Self-efficacy =18.89+0.214 x job performance+0.172x of Organisational commitment.

Discussion

Pearson correlation coefficients showed that there is a positive correlation between self- efficacy and job performance, self-efficacy and organizational commitment.

In the sense that the higher the self-efficacy of physical education teachers, the higher the job performance and organizational commitment. Self-efficacy affects an individual's behaviour and efforts in the task assigned to him (Bandura, 1997; Liu & Huang, 2019). Self- efficacy has a positive effect on job performance (Lai & Chen, 2012). Individuals with high self-efficacy display the most self-respect and confidence in their abilities, are committed to their work, and do not care about the negative aspects (Lane et al., 2004; Peng & Mao, 2015; Schwarzer & Hallum, 2008). Self-efficacy dramatically changes organizational commitment from good to better (Zeb & Nawaz, 2016).

The prediction equation confirmed that the relationship between self-efficacy and predictive independent variables is positive; Both job performance and organizational commitment affect self-efficacy even at a low percentage. Job performance has a great impact on the self- efficacy (Agu, 2015; Liu & Huang, 2019). The task performance indeed influences self- efficacy, and helps to achieve success (Stokes & Spruance, 2020). Organizational commitment leads to enhance self-efficacy (Agu, 2015; Liu & Huang, 2019). The multiple regression indicated that the organizational commitment reinforces self-efficacy among mangers in company (Sinha et al., 2002).

Conclusion

By presenting and discussing the results, it became clear that there was a positive correlation for physical education teacher, between self-efficacy and job performance, self-efficacy and organizational commitment. And self-efficacy could be predicted according to job performance and organizational commitment. Future studies would preferably be about other psychological variables such as psychological toughness and psychological resilience.

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