Vitae <ul> <li class="show"><strong>ISSN Impreso:</strong> 0121-4004</li> <li class="show"><strong>ISSN electrónico: </strong>2145-2660</li> <li class="show"><strong>Periodicidad:</strong> cuatrimestral</li> <li class="show"><strong>Creative Commons:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">by-nc-sa</a></li> </ul> en-US <h1>Copyright Notice and Open Access Statement</h1> <p align="justify">The Journal Vitae works under the Open Access license, and the published manuscripts remain available for the public, both on the Journal's website and in databases, under the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><u>Creative Commons license</u></a>, "Noncommercial Attribution" and "Share alike" systems, adopted in Colombia. Hence, when the authors agree to publish in the Journal Vitae, they will not have the right to economic retributions on publications and reproductions through different diffusion media. The documents are freely available to the internet public, permitting users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts and pass them as data to software. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be appropriately acknowledged and cited.</p> <h3>Authors declare that:</h3> <ol> <li value="1"> <p align="justify">They are the intellectual property owners and are responsible for all the information stated in the article.</p> </li> <li value="2"> <p align="justify">This manuscript has not been submitted or published in other printed or digital media. They accept the responsibility for the judgments, opinions, and points of view expressed in the published article and, therefore, they exonerate Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from any process.</p> </li> <li value="3"> <p align="justify">They exempt Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae from settling conflicts or disputes related to the authorship of the referred article.</p> </li> <li value="4"> <p align="justify">They accept the revision of the original manuscript by suitable personnel, and they bind themselves to perform the corrections appointed or suggested by the assessors.</p> </li> <li value="5"> <p align="justify">Therefore, they know the editorial process and will not bind the Editorial Board of the Journal to assume any obligations regarding the volume and issue in which the article is published.</p> </li> <li value="6"> <p align="justify">They transfer the rights of publication, reprinting, and distribution of the article from the moment of its approval, in print and digital format, without the right to economic rewards, and under the licensing conditions considered relevant by Journal Vitae.</p> </li> <li value="7"> <p align="justify">They fully authorize Universidad de Antioquia and Journal Vitae to submit the published material to the diverse databases and indexing systems where the Journal can be found to comply with the requirements of the regulatory authorities to maintain the national classification of journals.</p> </li> <li value="8"> <p align="justify">They will assume the article publication costs established for the current issue, and they will make the payment as soon as they are informed about the volume and the issue in which the final version of the article is published.</p> </li> <li value="9"> <p align="justify">After the article is published, you can share digital or printed copies in a noncommercial manner. You will be able to use the paper in your institution or company for educational or research purposes, including the use in course programs.</p> </li> </ol> <p align="justify"><strong>Conflict of interest:</strong> Authors are responsible for recognizing and disclosing any financial or other benefits that could be perceived to bias their work, acknowledging all financial support and any personal connections with potential sponsors. Examples of such conflicts include receiving research funds or honoraria, serving on advisory boards, stock ownership, or employment and consulting arrangements. Authors without such connections should clearly state that they have no financial support or personal relationships that could be perceived to bias their work. All conflicts of interest should be disclosed on the author's identification page of the manuscript.</p> (L. L. Corrales-Garcia) (L. L. Corrales-Garcia) Thu, 18 Aug 2022 15:54:43 -0500 OJS 60 The luminescent Chalcones. Its potential use as a luminescent and antitumoral agents <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND</strong>: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved using natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress, detect, or prevent cancer progression. <strong>OBJECTIVES</strong>: In this study, both the antiproliferative effects and luminescent properties of 2’-hydroxychalcones were evaluated. <strong>METHODS</strong>: Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay, spectroscopy assays, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to determine the luminescent properties of 2´-hydroxychalcones. <strong>RESULTS</strong>: Cytotoxic effects of 2´-hydroxychalcones were observed over the HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Since the chalcone moiety could be used as a fluorescent probe, these compounds may be helpful in cancer diagnosis and tumor localization. They may enable tumor observation and regression through the fluorescence during treatment; therefore, the compounds are a potential candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas. <strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: This report describes the chalcones’ use as a specific luminescent biomarker in tumor cells. We also report the cellular uptake of 2’-hydroxychalcones, their cellular distribution, and the mechanisms that may be responsible for their cytotoxic effects.</p> Rodrigo Ramirez, Cesar Echeverria, Leonor Alvarado-Soto, Carlos A. Escobar Copyright (c) 2022 Rodrigo Ramirez, Cesar Echeverria, Leonor Alvarado-Soto, Carlos Escobar Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant and Inhibitory Capacity of Tomato Leaf Ethanolic Extract against Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Candida albicans <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>Tomato is a source of bioactive compounds, antimicrobials, and antioxidants. Tomato leaf preparations have been empirically used for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibiotic, and antiseptic purposes. However, research on the potential activity of tomato leaf extracts against oral microorganisms and in managing oropharyngeal infections is scarce. <strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate tomato leaf ethanolic extract’s antioxidant and growth inhibitory capacity against common oral pathogenic microorganisms, namely, <em>Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis</em>, and <em>Candida albicans</em>. <strong>Methods: </strong>Ethanolic extracts were made from ‘Chonto’ tomato (<em>Lycopersicon esculentum</em>) leaves. The antimicrobial activity was measured with the microdilution technique using vancomycin and fluconazole as positive controls. The antioxidant capacity was measured with the ORAC assay using Trolox as a positive control. <strong>Results: </strong>We found a high percentage of growth inhibition (≥100%) against <em>S. mutans</em> and <em>P. gingivalis</em> at a concentration of 500 mg/L. However, the extract was ineffective in inhibiting the growth of <em>C. albicans</em>. Finally, we observed that the extract exerted a high antioxidant capacity (126%) compared to the positive control. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>This study provides new insights into the potential antimicrobial effect of tomato leaf extracts on common oral pathogenic bacteria, which may ultimately result in the development of new herbal products that might help prevent and treat oral infections, such as dental caries and periodontal disease. Our findings also support previous studies on the high antioxidant capacity of tomato leaf extracts.</p> Yeiner Mendoza, Mónica Arias-Londoño, Juliana Sánchez-Garzón, Diego Fernando Rojas-Vahos, Jairo Robledo-Sierra Copyright (c) 2022 Yeiner Mendoza, Mónica Arias-Londoño, Juliana Sánchez-Garzón, Diego Fernando Rojas-Vahos, Jairo Robledo-Sierra Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Anxiolytic-like activity of Aloysia virgata var. platyphylla leaves extract in mice <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background</strong>: Medicinal plants are part of traditional medicine and should be considered a therapeutic alternative for mental diseases. Several plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family have proved useful in treating general anxiety disorders, the most prevalent psychiatric disorders. <strong>Objective</strong>: This research aimed to verify the extract’s safety, the effect on general behavior, and the effect on sleeping time, as well as to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effect of the methanol extract of <em>Aloysia</em> <em>virgata</em> var. <em>platyphylla</em> (Avp), in mice. <strong>Methodology</strong>: The toxicity test was done according to the OECD guide (mice groups n=5), and general behavior was observed during the assay. Sleeping time was assessed using the pentobarbital-induced hypnosis method (n=8). Male Swiss albino mice (n=6) were treated with 50 to 400 mg/kg of Avp extract and diazepam as a control. The anxiolytic-like effect was tested through the hole board and elevated plus-maze test. <strong>Results</strong>: The Avp extract has no side effects in tested doses, and no central nervous system depressant activity was noted. <em>A.</em> <em>virgata</em> var. <em>platyphylla </em>increased exploration (number and time) in the hole board. In the elevated plus-maze, increased number and time into open arms were evidenced compared to the control group. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: With all these results, we concluded that the Avp extract is safe and has a potential anxiolytic-like activity in the animal model used.</p> María Luisa Kennedy, Miguel A. Campuzano-Bublitz, Elena MG Diarte, Enrique Snead, Teresa Taboada Copyright (c) 2022 María Luisa Kennedy, Miguel A. Campuzano-Bublitz, Elena MG Diarte, Enrique Snead, Teresa Taboada Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Potentials of the Stem Extract of Pternandra galeata <div><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">: <em>Pternandra galeata</em> belongs to the family Melastomataceae. It is a native flowering plant in Borneo Island that serve as food for monkey habitat. There has been limited study on the medicinal and chemical properties of this plant. <strong>Objectives</strong>: We investigated the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and evaluated the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of <em>Pternandra galeata</em> stem. The total phenolic content in the sample was also determined. <strong>Methods</strong>: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assays were performed using Ellman’s method. Two different methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method by employing gallic acid as a reference. <strong>Results</strong>: The ethanolic extract of the <em>P. galeata</em> stems inhibited the AChE enzyme with an IC<sub>50</sub>value of 74.62 ± 0.89 µg/mL. The sample exhibited antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 20.21 ± 0.08 µg/mL and 7.68 ± 0.09µg/mL in the ABTS scavenging assay. The total phenolic content was 164.71 ± 3.33</span></div> <div><span lang="EN-US"> mg GAE/g extract. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: </span><span lang="EN-US">The ethanolic extract of the <em>P. galeata</em> stem can be a promising cholinesterase inhibitor and antioxidant for treating Alzheimer’s disease.</span></div> Suciati Suciati, Dwiki Nur Inayah, Aty Widyawaruyanti, Rudiyansyah Rudiyansyah Copyright (c) 2022 Suciati Suciati, Dwiki Nur Inayah, Aty Widyawaruyanti, Rudiyansyah Rudiyansyah Sat, 08 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Evaluation of antioxidant activity, phenolic content, anthocyanins, and flavonoids of fresh and dried ‘Biloxi’ blueberries <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> The phytochemical content present in blueberries has generated great interest, especially in the nutra-pharmaceutical industry, where it is known as the “super fruit” due to its prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, among others). <strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> This study evaluated the functional potential of fresh blueberries and dried blueberries using forced convection by measuring phytochemical content to conclude if this drying technology is convenient for prolonging the product's shelf life. <strong>METHODS:</strong> For this purpose, antioxidant activity, phenolic content, total anthocyanins, and total flavonoids of ‘Biloxi’ blueberry cultivars were determined. Fresh and dried blueberries’ results were studied. Fruit extracts were analyzed to determine antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a free radical, total phenolic content with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, total anthocyanins by pH differential method, and total flavonoids by Aluminum Chloride method. <strong>RESULTS:</strong> Results for fresh blueberries yielded ranges of antioxidant activity (90.8-93.9% Free radical scavenging rate), total phenolic content (275 to 645mgGAE/100gFW), total anthocyanins content (28.55 to 43.75mgCy3G/100gFW) and total flavonoids content (159.92 to 335.75mgQE/100gFW). For the forced convection oven process, ranges of antioxidant activity (85.5-92.6% Free radical scavenging rate), total phenolic content (261 to 308mgGAE/100gFW), total anthocyanins content (4.74 to 5.12mgCy3G/100gFW) and total flavonoids content (30.66±0.38mgQE/100gFW) were obtained. <strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> In general, blueberries studied proved to have similar concentrations of functional properties compared to a wide variety of cultivars grown around the globe. Furthermore, higher concentrations of phytochemical content than those reported previously for strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries were evidenced. Although dried blueberries studied proved to have diminished phytochemical content, this functional component content stands out among the fruits market and give nutritional value to end consumers. Drying processes could potentially increase the commerce of blueberries by significantly reducing their perishable nature.</p> María Hernández-Carrión, Santiago Caicedo Narvaez Copyright (c) 2022 María Hernández-Carrión, Santiago Caicedo Narvaez Thu, 18 Aug 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Effectiveness Comparison of Polysaccharides, Proteins, and Lipids as Composite Edible Coatings on the Quality of Food Products <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>This research was motivated by the complaints of tomato farmers about their crops that quickly rotted before being sold, as well as the many research results (raw materials and methods) that edible coating films could not be applied optimally. <strong>Objectives: </strong>The research was a practical recommendation by comparing the effectiveness of raw materials (polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids) with the dipping and spray methods. <strong>Materials and methods</strong> used in the comparison process were the application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the Partial Least Square (PLS) approach. <strong>Results:</strong> Dipping has a strong effect (<strong><em>f<sup>2</sup></em></strong><em> ≥ 0.35; <strong>p</strong>&lt;0.05</em>), while spray had a moderate effect (<strong><em>f<sup>2</sup></em></strong><em>: 0.15-0.35; <strong>p</strong>&lt;0.05</em>). Thus, the role of dipping as a mediator was more dominant than spray. Compared to proteins and lipids, polysaccharides had the best effectiveness (<strong>β</strong><em>:0.460-0.584; <strong>f<sup>2</sup></strong>: 0.15-0.35; <strong>p</strong>&lt;0.05</em>). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> the three ingredients improved the quality of tomatoes, and the dipping method was easier to apply by farmers than the spray method, which had many obstacles in its application.</p> Budianto Budianto, Anik, Jaenal, Ratna Haryani Copyright (c) 2022 Budianto Budianto, Anik, Jaenal, Ratna Haryani Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Effects of Solar Drying on the Structural and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Bee Pollen <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Background: </strong>Bee pollen is a natural product collected and transformed by bees, intended for human consumption, given its nutritional and bioactive richness. The fundamental operation of adequacy is drying, which allows its preservation, avoiding chemical or microbiological degradation, typically using tray dryers with hot air that use electricity or fuel for heat generation. Solar drying is an alternative that uses radiation as an energy source. However, it should be ensured that this type of process guarantees the quality of the product while not degrading its properties and, therefore, maintaining its morphological integrity. <strong>Objective:</strong> to establish the effect of solar drying on bee pollen structure compared to the conventional cabin dehydration process. <strong>Methods:</strong> Bee pollen was dehydrated using two types of dryers: a solar dryer and a forced convection oven. The solar dryer operating conditions were an average temperature of 19-35 °C with a maximum of 38 °C and average relative humidity (RH) of 55 %. Cabin dryer operating conditions were a set point temperature of 55 ± 2 °C and 10 % RH average humidity. The morphologic and thermodynamic properties of dried bee pollen, such as phase transition enthalpy through Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), porosity and surface area through surface area analysis, and microscopic surface appearance by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), were measured. <strong>Results: </strong>The results showed dry bee pollen, both in the cabin dryer and solar dryer, did not suffer morphological changes seen through SEM compared to fresh bee pollen. Moreover, surface area analysis indicated the absence of porosity in the microscopic or macroscopic structure, demonstrating that solar or cabin drying processes did not affect the specific surface area concerning fresh bee pollen. Additionally, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) showed that endothermic phase transitions for dried bee pollen by cabin or solar dryer were at 145 °C and 160 °C, respectively. This can be mostly associated with free water loss due to the morphological structure preservation of the material compared to fresh bee pollen. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>These results demonstrate that solar drying is a reliable alternative to bee pollen dehydration as there were no effects that compromised its structural integrity.</p> Carlos Mario Zuluaga Dominguez, Brian Alberto Castellanos Páez, Andrés Durán Jiménez, Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor, Marta Cecilia Quicazán Copyright (c) 2022 Carlos Mario Zuluaga Dominguez, Brian Alberto Castellanos Páez, Andrés Durán Jiménez, Carlos Alberto Fuenmayor, Marta Cecilia Quicazán Tue, 18 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500