Efecto inmunodulador y microbicida de las células mesenquimales estromales obtenidas de médula ósea

Palabras clave: células mesenquimales estromales, células madre mesenquimales, inmunomodulación, efecto microbicida

Resumen

Las células mesenquimales estromales obtenidas de medula ósea (BMMSCs) o células madre mesenquimales son células madre adultas con interesantes cualidades en medicina regenerativa ya que poseen la capacidad de diferenciarse a células de tejidos mesenquimales y otros como parénquima pulmonar, neuronal y células hepáticas entre otras. Así mismo otro de sus atributos consiste en su capacidad inmunomoduladora, basada en: migración a tejido inflamado, liberación de moléculas anti-inflamatorias, diferenciación a tejido específico y liberación de exosomas. Finalmente, otra de las características recientemente exploradas, consiste en su capacidad microbicida, la cual puede ser de forma directa (liberación de moléculas antimicrobianas y procesos como fagocitosis) o indirecta (liberación de mediadores que activan otras células o mecanismos inmunes). Teniendo en cuenta las propiedades mencionadas, las BMMSCS han sido postuladas como una prometedora alternativa terapéutica en el tratamiento de enfermedades autoinmunes e inflamatorias ya sea mediante trasplantes autólogos o purificación de sus exosomas. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo describir los principales mecanismos moleculares e inmunológicos asociados a la capacidad inmunomoduladora y microbicida de las BMMSCs en modelos experimentales de algunas enfermedades infecciosas como pacoccidioidomicosis, candidiasis, aspergilosis, tuberculosis y COVID19 entre otros, con el objetivo de ser propuestas para ensayos clínicos en humanos a futuro.

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Biografía del autor/a

Julián Camilo Arango Rincón, Universidad de Antioquia

Grupo de Micología Médica y Experimental, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas. Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia.

Citas

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Publicado
2020-10-26
Cómo citar
Arango Rincón J. C. (2020). Efecto inmunodulador y microbicida de las células mesenquimales estromales obtenidas de médula ósea. Hechos Microbiológicos, 11(1 y 2), 72-81. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.hm.v11n1a05
Sección
Artículos de revisión