Nuevos inhibidores de betalactamasas: actualidad y aplicación en la práctica

  • Andrés Rincón Riveros Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca
  • Daniela Acevedo Cepeda Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca
  • David Chaparro Lozano Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca
  • Karoll N. Serrato Ladino Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca
Palabras clave: Antibacterianos, Beta-Lactamasas, Beta-Lactámicos, Enterobacteriaceae, farmacorresistencia Bacteriana, inhibidores de beta-Lactamasas

Resumen

Introducción: Las betalactamasas son enzimas producidas por microorganismos como mecanismo de resistencia a antibióticos betalactámicos, inactivando su función mediante la hidrólisis del anillo betalactámico. Esta resistencia se ha visto en aumento lo que ha generado una problemática en salud pública por la producción de abundantes enzimas que confieren resistencia antimicrobiana, creando así la necesidad de buscar nuevos antibióticos e inhibidores de enzimas que puedan ser usados en tratamientos contra organismos productores de estas como: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, entre otros.

Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es presentar la actualidad y desarrollo de nuevos inhibidores de betalactamasas, específicamente del grupo diazabicyclo octano (DBO); avibactam, nacubactam, zidebactam y del grupo de boronatos cíclicos como taniborbactam, vaborbactam y QPX 7728.

Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica exhaustiva en diferentes bases de datos como PubMed y Sciencedirect. Para la selección de las publicaciones a analizar se aplicaron criterios de inclusión como: Términos MeSH DeCS, publicaciones únicamente en idioma inglés, aplicaciones y fecha de publicación posterior al 2010.

Resultados y conclusión: El grupo de los boronatos cíclicos da un mayor espectro de acción, ya que actúa tanto en metalobetalactamasas (MLB) como serínbetalacatamasas (SBL), mientras que los DBO actúan principalmente en serínbetalactamasas. Como conclusión principal se observa que los nuevos inhibidores abren las puertas a alternativas terapéuticas dirigidas a infecciones producidas por bacterias productoras de betalactamasas. Algunos inhibidores han sido aprobados por la agencia de Administración de Medicamentos y Alimentos de los Estados Unidos (Food and Drug Administration, FDA), mientras que otros se encuentran en fases de estudio y desarrollo, enfocando investigaciones necesarias y urgentes que hagan frente a esta problemática de salud pública mundial.

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Biografía del autor/a

Andrés Rincón Riveros, Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca

Docente Programa de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico. 

Daniela Acevedo Cepeda, Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca

Estudiante de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico.

David Chaparro Lozano, Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca

Estudiante de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico.

Karoll N. Serrato Ladino, Universidad Colegio Mayor de Cundinamarca

Estudiante de Bacteriología y Laboratorio Clínico. 

Citas

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Publicado
2021-05-01
Cómo citar
Rincón Riveros A., Acevedo CepedaD., Chaparro LozanoD., & Serrato LadinoK. N. (2021). Nuevos inhibidores de betalactamasas: actualidad y aplicación en la práctica. Hechos Microbiológicos, 12(1), 41-55. https://doi.org/10.17533/10.17533/udea.hm.v12n1a05
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