Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana e insecticida de extractos producidos por bacterias aisladas de suelo

  • Isabel N. Sierra-García Universidad Industrial de Santander
  • Magally Romero-Tabarez Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Sergio Orduz-Peralta Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Palabras clave: actividad insecticida, antimicrobianos, compuestos activos, extractos bacterianos, Bacillus

Resumen

Colombia es considerado uno de los países con mayor diversidad biológica, sin embargo, muy poca de esa diversidad ha sido explorada para identificar sustancias biológicamente activas. Los metabolitos secundarios bacterianos pueden presentar actividad frente a patógenos de plantas y animales y representan alternativas biotecnológicas para la industria. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el potencial de diferentes cepas bacterianas aisladas de suelo, para producir sustancias biológicamente activas como antibacterianos, antifúngicos e insecticidas. Un total de 92 extractos metanólicos de metabolitos secundarios bacterianos fueron evaluados. La actividad antibacterial y antifúngica se evaluó mediante el ensayo de difusión en agar frente a diversas bacterias como Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus frente a diferentes hongos Alternaria sp., Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium sp., Pestalotia sp. y Verticillium sp. La actividad insecticida se evaluó determinando el efecto de los extractos sobre la mortalidad de larvas de Aedes aegypti (Diptera) y Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera). Se determinó que el 50% de los aislamientos bacterianos tuvieron algún tipo de actividad, aunque la mayor actividad biológica se detectó en los extractos producidos por bacterias del género Bacillus, identificados por medio de análisis del ADN ribosomal 16S y por caracterización bioquímica con API® 50 CHB, MicroLogTM y Biolog. Las especies del género Bacillus identificadas han sido caracterizadas como productoras de compuestos antimicrobianos de amplio espectro o de varios compuestos con diferentes actividades. La actividad biológica presentada por los extractos evidencian que los microorganismos terrestres y especialmente, las especies de Bacillus son productores prolíficos de diversas sustancias bioactivas.

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Biografía del autor/a

Isabel N. Sierra-García, Universidad Industrial de Santander
Escuela de Biología, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas. Bucaramanga (Santander), Colombia
Magally Romero-Tabarez, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Ciencias Naturales, Grupo de Biotecnología Microbiana, Laboratorio de Microbiología Industrial, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de de Colombia (Sede Medellín). Medellín (Antioquia), Colombia
Sergio Orduz-Peralta, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, Escuela de Biociencias, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Sede Medellín). Medellín (Antioquia), Colombia

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Publicado
2017-10-18
Cómo citar
Sierra-García I. N., Romero-Tabarez M., & Orduz-Peralta S. (2017). Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana e insecticida de extractos producidos por bacterias aisladas de suelo. Actualidades Biológicas, 34(96), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.17533/96
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