Señalización Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) en el cerebro adulto: vía crucial para la reactivación de los astrocitos y la reparación del cerebro

  • Olga M. Bermúdez-Muñoz Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: astrocito, daño cerebral, glía, reparación tisular, señalización Hedgehog

Resumen

Mientras que las neuronas juegan un papel fundamental en la neurotransmisión en el sistema nervioso central de los animales, las células gliales son cruciales para dar sostén a las neuronas y por lo tanto, para el funcionamiento del cerebro. Estudios recientes han puesto de manifiesto que las células gliales regulan la liberación y reciclaje de neurotransmisores, el metabolismo del piruvato y del glutatión, sirviendo de tampón para diferentes iones, participando en la organización de la barrera hematoencefálica y en la producción de mielina y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. La actividad de las células gliales se encuentra estrechamente coordinada por la comunicación entre las neuronas y la glía. Entre la señalización celular del cerebro, la vía Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) juega un papel importante al regular el desarrollo y patrón del sistema nervioso central. En el cerebro adulto, la proteína SHH es secretada por las neuronas y por los astrocitos y media de esa manera las interacciones neuro-gliales. Cuando ocurre un daño en el cerebro,
la vía de señalización SHH es (re)-activada en el cerebro adulto. Las células gliales y particularmente los astrocitos, son células esenciales para la respuesta del cerebro frente a un daño y para su reparación. La respuesta de los astrocitos se encuentra mediada por la activación de la vía SHH en estas células. En este
artículo se revisa la importancia de las células gliales y específicamente de los astrocitos en la fisiología del cerebro, la implicación de la vía de señalización SHH en la organización y funcionamiento del cerebro, y cómo la señalización SHH regula la re-activación de los astrocitos y la respuesta celular frente al daño
tisular y a la reparación del cerebro en el organismo adulto.

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Publicado
2017-09-22
Cómo citar
Bermúdez-Muñoz O. M. (2017). Señalización Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) en el cerebro adulto: vía crucial para la reactivación de los astrocitos y la reparación del cerebro. Actualidades Biológicas, 38(105), 197-209. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.acbi.v38n105a07
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