Surgical site infection incidence after a clean-contaminated surgery in Yasuj Shahid Beheshti hospital, Iran


  • Mohebbi Nobandegani Zinat MSc. Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Shiraz Medical University, Shiraz, Iran. email:
  • Najafi Doulatabad Shahla MSc. Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran. email:
  • Rambod Masoumeh MSc. Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Shiraz Medical University, Shiraz, Iran. email:
  • Afraseyabi Ardeshir Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran. email:



Bacterial infections; cross infection; surgical wound infection.


Objective. To determine the incidence rate of infection after a clean-contaminated surgery and its relationship with some risk factors.

Methodology. Cross sectional study, in a convenience sample of 300 patients who underwent surgery classified as clean-contaminated in a hospital of Yasuj, Iran. Samples were taken directly from the wound at the first dressing change to all the patients. They were studied to determine bacteria growth.

Results. The rate of infection after a clean-contaminated surgery was 53%. The most common gram positive microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (22%), and among gram negative: Es­cherichia coli (26%), Klebsiella sp (26%) and Pseudomonas sp (25%). Significant correlation between the type of surgery and surgical site infection was found, it was not seen with the varia­bles sex and surgical procedure.

Conclusion. This study shows important problems regarding patient’s safety. Protocols should be reviewed to control infections.

= 305 veces | PDF (ENGLISH)
= 31 veces| | HTML (ENGLISH)
= 11 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


(1) Horan TC, Culver DH, Gaynes R P, Jarvis WR, Edwards JR, Reid CR. Nosocomial infections in surgical patients in the United States, January 1986-June 1992. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993;14(2):73-80.

(2) Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Am J Infect Control. 1999;27(2):97-132.

(3) Raymond DP, Pelletier SJ, Crabtree TD, Schulman AM, Pruett TL, Sawyer RG. Surgical infection and the aging population. Am Surg. 2001;67(9):827-32.

(4) Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Emori TG. The nationwide nosocomial infection rate. A new need for vital statistics. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121(2):159-67.

(5) Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Storr J, Donaldson L. ‘Clean Care is Safer Care’: the Global Patient Safety Challenge 2005-2006. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10(6):419-24.

(6) Kanerva M, Ollgren J, Virtanen MJ, Lyytikäinen O; Prevalence Survey Study Group. Estimating the annual burden of health care-associated infections in Finnish adult acute care hospitals. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37(3):227-30.

(7) Dohmen PM. Antibiotic resistance in common pathogens reinforces the need to minimise surgical site infections. J Hosp Infect. 2008;70 Suppl 2:15-20.

(8) Astagneau P, L’Hériteau F, Daniel F, Parneix P, Venier AG, Malavaud S, et al. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system. J Hosp Infect. 2009;72(2):127-34.

(9) Kanellakopoulou K, Papadopoulos A, Varvaroussis D, Varvaroussis A, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Pagonas A, et al. Efficacy of teicoplanin for the prevention of surgical site infections after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a prospective, open-label study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;33(5):437-40.

(10) Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of medical surgical nursing. 11th (Ed). China: Lippincott Williams’ & Wilkins a Wolters Kluwer Company; 2008. p. 1521-52.

(11) Haley RW, Culver DH, White JW, Morgan WM, Emori TG, Munn VP, Hooton TM. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121(2):182-205.

(12) Brandt C, Sohr D, Behnke M, Daschner F, Rüden H, Gastmeier P. Reduction of surgical site infection rates associated with active surveillance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006;27(12):1347-51.

(13) Hadadi A, Rasoulinejad M, Maleki Z, Yonesian M, Shirani A, Kourorian Z. Antimicrobial resistance pattern of Gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin at 2 university hospitals in Iran. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;60(3):301-5.

(14) Szilágyi E, Böröcz K, Gastmeier P, Kurcz A, Horváth-Puhó E.The national nosocomial surveillance network in Hungary: results of two years of surgical site infection surveillance. J Hosp Infect. 2009;71(1):74-80.

(15) Santos KR, Bravo Neto GP, Fonseca LS, Gontijo Filho PP. Incidence surveillance of wound infection in hernia surgery during hospitalization and after discharge in a university hospital. J Hosp Infect. 1997;36(3):229-33.

(16) Moreea S, Rajah F, Rycken J. Pilot study of post operative infections in incisional wounds and split skin grafts in a provincial hospital in Zimbabwe. Trop Doct. 1993;23(4):160-4.

(17) Kotisso B, Aseffa A. Surgical wound infection in a teaching hospital in Ethiopia. East Afr Med J. 1998;75(7):402-5.

(18) Olsen MA, Sundt TM, Lawton JS, Damiano RJ Jr, Hopkins-Broyles D, Lock-Buckley P, et al. Risk factors for leg harvest surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003;126(4):992-9.

(19) L’Ecuyer PB, Murphy D, Little JR, Fraser VJ. The epidemiology of chest and leg wound infections following cardiothoracic surgery. . Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22(3):424-9.

(20) Habte-Gabr E, Gedebou M, Kronvall G. Hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Am J Infect Control. 1988;16(1):7-13.

(21) Mitt P, Adamson V, Lõivukene K, Lang K, Telling K, Päro K, et al. Epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in Estonia. J Hosp Infect. 2009;71(4):365-70.

(22) Akpabie A, Duché C, Le Gaudion M. Nosocomial bacteremia: impact of empirical antimicrobial treatment on the patients’ outcome. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2009;57(1):51-5.

(23) Mayon-White RT, Ducel G, Kereselidze T, Tikomirov E. An international survey of the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect. 1988;11 Suppl A:43-8.

(24) Kasatpibal N, Jamulitrat S, Chongsuvivatwong V. Standardized incidence rates of surgical site infection: a multicenter study in Thailand. J Infect Control. 2005;33(10):587-94.

(25) Brown S, Kurtsikashvili G, Alonso-Echanove J, Ghadua M, Ahmeteli L, Bochoidze T, et al. Prevalence and predictors of surgical site infection in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. J Hosp Infect. 2007;66(2):160-6.

(26) Orrett FA. Resistance patterns among selective Gram-negative bacilli from an intensive care unit in Trinidad, West Indies. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(4):478-83.

(27) Rhomberg PR, Fritsche TR, Sader HS, Jones RN. Comparative antimicrobial potency of meropenem tested against Gram-negative bacilli: report from the MYSTIC surveillance program in the United States (2004). J Chemother. 2005;17(5):459-69.

(28) Wagenlehner FM, Weidner W, Naber KG. Emergence of antibiotic resistance amongst hospital-acquired urinary tract infections and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. J Hosp Infect. 2005;60(3):191-200.

(29) Rodríguez CH, Juárez J, de Mier C, Pugliese L, Blanco G, Vay C, et al. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in gram-negative rods isolated from intensive care units. Comparative analysis between two periods (1998 and 2001). Medicina (B Aires). 2003;63(1):21-7.

(30) Mendes C, Oplustil C, Sakagami E, Turner P, Kiffer C; MYSTIC Brazil Group. Antimicrobial susceptibility in intensive care units: MYSTIC Program Brazil 2002. Braz J Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;9(1):44-51



How to Cite

Nobandegani Zinat, M., Doulatabad Shahla, N., Masoumeh, R., & Ardeshir, A. (2011). Surgical site infection incidence after a clean-contaminated surgery in Yasuj Shahid Beheshti hospital, Iran. Investigación Y Educación En Enfermería, 29(3).




Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.