Prevalencia de Anaplasma spp. en el ámbito mundial: revisión sistemática 1978–2018

Palabras clave: prevalencia, Anaplasma spp., revisión sistemática, metaanálisis

Resumen

Introducción: el objetivo de este estudio fue describir la prevalencia mundial de Anaplasma spp. y las prevalencias específicas según lugar y año de estudio, especie y técnica diagnóstica con base en investigaciones originales reportadas en la literatura científica mundial.

Métodos: se realizó una revisión sistemática en Medline-Pubmed y SciELO con 14 estrategias de búsqueda, siguiendo las fases de la guía PRISMA y garantizando exhaustividad y reproducibilidad. Se incluyeron 221 estudios, la mayoría publicados entre 2011 y 2015.

Resultados: los países con mayor número de estudios fueron Estados Unidos (n=32), China y Alemania (n=15), Polonia (n=14) y Brasil (n=12). La principal prueba diagnóstica fue la PCR (70 %). La mayor proporción de investigaciones fue en rumiantes (30,3 %), garrapatas (23,6 %) y cánidos (16,8 %), en menor proporción se estudiaron los felinos (3,2 %) y équidos (1,8 %). En los 221 estudios, la población fue de 337.119 individuos en quienes se halló una prevalencia global del 6,28 % (21.175). Las mayores prevalencias específicas se hallaron en los équidos con un 25,67 % (n=409) y los cérvidos con 21,14 % (n=6.215). La frecuencia de positivos por microscopía fue 49,4 % (n=1.747) y por PCR 10,57 % (n=90.891).

Conclusiones: la anaplasmosis es una enfermedad zoonótica importante por su distribución mundial, amplio rango de hospederos y vectores, su elevada prevalencia en múltiples especies y su elevado riesgo para la salud humana y animal.  

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Biografía del autor/a

Johanna Urán, Universidad de Antioquia
Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia.
Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias, Universidad de Antioquia
Escuela de Microbiología.

Citas

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Publicado
2020-01-08
Cómo citar
Urán J., & Cardona Arias J. A. (2020). Prevalencia de Anaplasma spp. en el ámbito mundial: revisión sistemática 1978–2018. Hechos Microbiológicos, 10(1-2), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.hm.v10n1a04
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Artículos de revisión