Burnout among nursing students: a mixed method study
Objective. Investigate the burnout syndrome among undergraduate students in nursing.
Methods. Explanatory sequential mixed method study conducted at a public university in Brazil. Of the 119 nursing students, 114 consented to participate and answered a questionnaire composed of sociodemographic, academic variables, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Student Survey, which were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The participants of the quantitative phase with the indicative / risk of burnout were interviewed individually (n=21) to provide an in-depth understanding of the students' experiences regarding the dimensions of the syndrome, whose statements were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse.
Results. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 10.5% among the surveyed. The more advanced the school year, the higher were the exhaustion (p=0.003), depersonalization (p<0.001) and low academic effectiveness (p=0.012) scores. Students with a higher workload of assignments also had higher scores of exhaustion (p=0.001), depersonalization (p<0.001) and academic (in)effectiveness (p=0.042). Dissatisfaction with the course was related to higher exhaustion (p=0.049) and depersonalization (p=0.001). The collective speeches showed the daily demands of the course, considered as intense, producing overload and exhaustion, which produced symptoms of physical and mental illness. Thus, there was the student's distancing from the course activities, as a defensive attitude, which culminated in feelings of incompetence and frustration.
Conclusion. The occurrence of burnout syndrome dimensions among nursing students was related to the activities of academic daily life. It is urgent to invest in health promotion and prevention actions of these individuals in the university context.
How to cite this article: Galdino MJQ, Almeida LPBM, Silva LFR, Cremer E, Scholze AR, Martins JT, et al. Burnout among nursing students: a mixed method study. Invest. Educ. Enferm. 2020; 38(1):e07.
(1) Auerbach RP, Mortier P, Bruffaerts R, Alonso J, Benjet C, Cuijpers P, et al; WHO WMH-ICS Collaborators. WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project: Prevalence and distribution of mental disorders. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 2018; 127(7):623-38.
(2) Bruffaerts R, Mortier P, Kiekens G, Auerbach RP, Cuijpers P, Demyttenaere K, et al. Mental health problems in college freshmen: Prevalence and academic functioning. J. Affect. Disord. 2018; 225:97-103.
(3) Mortier P, Cuijpers P, Kiekens G, Auerbach RP, Demyttenaere K, Green JG, et al. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours among college students: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Med. 2018; 48(4):554-65.
(4) Schaufeli WB, Martinez IM, Pinto AM, Salanova M, Bakker AB. Burnout and engagement in university students: a cross-national study. J. Cross Cult. Psychol. 2002; 33(5):464-81.
(5) Uribe MAT, Illesca PM. Burnout in nursing students of a private university. Inv. Educ. Med. 2017; 6(24):234-41
(6) Rostami Z, Abedi MR, Schaufeli WB. Dose interest predicts academic burnout? Interdisc. J. Contemp. Res. Business. 2012; 3(9):877-85.
(7) Rudman A, Gustavsson JP. Burnout during nursing education predicts lower occupational preparedness and future clinical performance: a longitudinal study. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 2012; 49:988-1001.
(8) Silva RM, Goulart CT, Lopes LF, Serrano PM, Costa AL, Guido LA. Hardy personality and burnout syndrome among nursing students in three Brazilian universities - an analytic study. BMC Nurs. 2014; 30;13(1):9.
(9) Tavares KFA, Souza NVDO, Silva LD, Kestenberg CCF. Prevalence of burnout syndrome among resident nurses. Acta Paul. Enferm. 2014; 27(3):260-5.
(10) Galdino MJQ, Martins JT, Haddad MCFL, Robazzi MLCC, Birolim MM. Burnout syndrome among master’s and doctoral students in nursing. Acta Paul. Enferm. 2016; 29(1):100-6.
(11) Bagcivan G, Cinar FI, Tosun N, Korkmaz R. Determination of nursing students' expectations for faculty members and the perceived stressors during their education. Contemp. Nurse. 2015; 50(1):58-71.
(12) Sun FK, Long A, Tseng YS, Huang HM, You JH, Chiang CY. Undergraduate student nurses' lived experiences of anxiety during their first clinical practicum: A phenomenological study. Nurse Educ. Today. 2016; 37:21-6.
(13) Dooris M, Wills J, Newton J. Theorising healthy settings: a critical discussion with reference to healthy universities. Scand. J. Public Health. 2014; 42(Suppl 15):7-16.
(14) Creswell JW. Research desing. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 4ed. SAGE Publications; 2014.
(15) Lefevre F, Lefevre AMC, Marques MCC. Discourse of the collective subject, complexity and self-organization. Ciênc. Saúde Coletiva. 2009; 14(4):1193-204.
(16) Carlotto MS, Câmara SG. Psychometric characteristics of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-SS) in Brazilian college students. Psico-USF. 2006; 11(2):167-73.
(17) Tomaschewski-Barlem JG, Lunardi VL, Lunardi GL, Barlem EL, Silveira RS, Vidal DA. Burnout syndrome among undergraduate nursing students at a public university. Rev. Latino-Am. Enfermagem. 2014; 22(6):934-41.
(18) Babenko-Mould Y, Laschinger HK. Effects of incivility in clinical practice settings on nursing student burnout. Int. J. Nurs. Educ. Scholarsh. 2014; 11(1):145-54.
(19) Deasy C, Coughlan B, Pironom J, Jourdan D, Mannix-McNamara P. Psychological distress and coping amongst higher education students: a mixed method enquiry. PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(12):e115193.
(20) Newton J, Dooris M, Wills J. Healthy universities: an example of a whole-system health-promoting setting. Glob. Health Promot. 2016; 23(Supp. 1):57-65.
(21) Ferri P, Guerra E, Marcheselli L, Cunico L, Di Lorenzo R. Empathy and burnout: an analytic cross-sectional study among nurses and nursing students. Acta Biomed. 2015; 86 Suppl 2:104-15.
(22) Santos JLG, Copelli FHS, Balsanelli AP, Sarat CNF, Menegaz JC, Trotte LAC et al. Interpersonal communication competence among nursing students. Rev. Latino-Am. Enfermagem. 2019; 27:e3207.
(23) Tung CY, Chang CC, Ming JL, Chao KP. Occupational hazards education for nursing staff through web-based learning. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2014; 11(12):13035-46.
(24) Ketelaar SM, Nieuwenhuijsen K, Frings-Dresen MH, Sluiter JK. Exploring novice nurses' needs regarding their work-related health: a qualitative study. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 2015; 88(7):953-62.
(25) Mikkonen K, Kyngäs H, Kääriäinen M. Nursing students' experiences of the empathy of their teachers: a qualitative study. Adv. Health Sci. Educ. Theory Pract. 2015; 20(3):669-82.
Derechos de propiedad / Direitos de Propriedade
English: If the article is accepted for publication, all copyright will be of exclusive property of Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. The text and the graphics included in the publication are exclusive responsibility of the authors and not necessarily reflect the thought of the Editorial Committee.
Español: Si el artículo es aprobado para publicación, todos los derechos son de propiedad de Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. El texto y las gráficas incluidas en la publicación son de exclusiva responsabilidad de los autores y no necesariamente refleja el pensamiento del Comité Editorial.
Português: Se o artigo for aceito para publicação, todos os direitos autorais serão de propriedade exclusiva de Investigación y Educación en Enfermería. O texto e os gráficos incluídos na publicação são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores e não refletem necessariamente o pensamento do Comitê Editorial.