Supercritical extraction of bioactive compounds from cocoa husk: study of the main parameters
Keywords:Supercritical fluids, Carbon dioxide, Polyphenols, Natural antioxidants, Cocoa
Cocoa is a product of natural origin rich in polyphenols, mainly procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, which has a high antioxidant power. Its regular consumption brings positive health effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diameter of particle, extraction time, temperature, pressure and ethanol concentration in the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bioactive compounds from cocoa husk. This work was developed in two stages. The first stage was aimed to study the impact of the particle size and extraction time. Extractions were carried out under constant conditions. Once particle size and extraction time were defined, it gave way to the second stage, where the effect of three levels of temperature (308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K), pressure (10, 15 and 20 MPa) and concentration of ethanol (2, 11, and 20% ethanol) were evaluated. The results of this study suggest that particle sizes less than 0.26mm and extraction times exceeding 147min could increase the total polyphenol content (TPC). Finally, a multivariate statistical analysis was developed, showing that the most favorable conditions for obtaining extracts rich in polyphenols corresponded to 308.15K, 20MPa and 20% ethanol, under which the TPC was 35.11(±1.57)EAGmg/LEg, a total flavan-3-oles content (TFC) of 12.89 (±0.51)EEPmg/gLE and total carotenoids content (TCC) of 64.35(±1.54)EBC mg/gLE. The results obtained suggest that SFE favors the extraction of apolar compounds (carotenoids) from cocoa husk. Likewise, for the optimal extraction point, husk cocoa showed antioxidant capacity
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