A spreadsheet program for making a balanced Latin Square design


  • Beob G. Kim
  • Hans H. Stein Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois




animal experiment, carryover effect, Latin square design



Latin square designs are often employed in animal experiments to minimize the number of animals required to detect statistical differences. Generally, potential carryover effects are not balanced out by randomization. Systemic methods are available for equalizing the residual effects. We have developed an Excel® spreadsheet-based program, the Balanced Latin Square Designer (BLSD), to facilitate the generation of Latin squares balanced for carryover effects. The program allows a user to input the number of treatments that is equal to the number of animals and periods in a square. A user may also input the number of squares. Then, the BLSD automatically generates Latin squares balanced for the first order carryover effects. For an even number of treatments, each treatment immediately precedes and follows every other treatment exactly once in the square. For Latin squares with an odd number of treatments, the first order residual effects can be balanced only if they are replicated an even number of times. The program also displays a table for an experimental schedule sorted by period and animal. The BLSD allows animal scientists to quickly and accurately generate Latin squares balanced for the first order carryover effects. The program is freely available upon request.


= 66 veces | PDF
= 29 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


Alimena BS. A method of determining unbiased distribution in the Latin square. Psychometrica 1962; 27:315-317.

Dilger RN, Adeola O. Estimation of true phosphorus digestibility and endogenous phosphorus loss in growing pigs fed conventional and low-phytate soybean meals.J Anim Sci 2006; 84:627-634.

El-Kadi SW, McLeod KR, Elam NA, Kitts SE, Taylor CC, Harmon DL, Bequette BJ, Vanzant ES. Nutrient net absorption across the portal-drained viscera of forage-fed beef steers: Quantitative assessment and application to a nutritional prediction model. J Anim Sci 2008; 86:2277-2287.

Kim BG, Lindemann MD, Bridges PJ, Ko C. GEPRO: Gene expression profi ler for microarray data. Rev Colomb Cienc Pecu 2009; 22:12-18.

Lindemann MD, Kim BG. Technical note: A model to estimate individual feed intake of swine in group feeding. J Anim Sci 2007; 85:972-975.Pardo O, Carulla JE, Hess HD. Effect of protein and energy relationship on the levels of ammonium rumen and blood urea nitrogen and milk, in dual purpose cows at the llanero foothills, Colombia. Rev Colomb Cienc Pecu 2008; 21:387-397.

Seo S, Kim HJ, Lee SY, Ha JK. Nitrogen utilization of cell mass from lysine production in goats. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2008; 21:561-566.

Stein HH, Connot SP, Pedersen C. Energy and nutrient digestibility in four sources of distillers dried grains with solubles produced from corn grown within a narrow geographical area and fed to growing pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2009; 22:1016-1025.

Williams EJ. Experimental designs balanced for the estimation of residual effects of treatments. Aust J Sci Res 1949; A2:149-168.




How to Cite

Kim, B. G., & Stein, H. H. (2009). A spreadsheet program for making a balanced Latin Square design. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias, 22(4), 6. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.324493



Original research articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

> >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.