Aptitud física y valoración funcional en futbolistas: revisión de la literatura

  • José Iván Alfonso Mantilla Universidad del Rosario
Palabras clave: futbolistas, pruebas de evaluación, aptitud física, condición física, forma deportiva

Resumen

Problema: el fútbol, se caracteriza por ser un deporte de demandas fisiológicas elevadas que exige a los deportistas estar en su máximo nivel físico. Para esto, la realización de valoraciones de aptitud física por parte del equipo médico y de preparación física son esenciales, debido a que permiten la identificación de alteraciones musculares y biomecánicas en los deportistas. Además, son base para desarrollar programas de entrenamiento y de prevención individualizados, orientados a disminuir la tasa de incidencia de lesiones, y mejorar las cualidades físicas y el desempeño de los deportistas. Objetivo: realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre las pruebas de evaluación utilizados para evaluar la aptitud física en futbolistas. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura, donde se tuvieron en cuenta los criterios de inclusión: literatura entre los años 2000-2018; contener los términos MeSH: athlete, soccer, fitness, assessment; idiomas: español, inglés o portugués; estudios tipo: ensayos clínicos aleatorizados, metaanálisis, casos y controles, estudios de cohorte, revisiones sistemáticas, y revisiones de literatura. Resultados: se determinó que existen test de evaluación específicos para cualidades físicas como capacidad aeróbica y resistencia, salto, fuerza, rango de movimiento y flexibilidad, coordinación, balance, equilibrio, velocidad, agilidad y core en futbolistas. Conclusión: existen diferentes pruebas para evaluar las cualidades físicas de un futbolista, que permiten identificar alteraciones musculares, articulares, biomecánicas y propioceptivas que pueden afectar el estado físico y el desempeño del deportista. La aplicación de pruebas de evaluación son la base para elaborar programas de entrenamiento individualizados con el fin de mejorar las cualidades físicas, disminuir lesiones musculares y recuperar la forma deportiva de los jugadores, así como generar datos estadísticos para la creación de protocolos de entrenamiento físico y prevención de lesiones específicos en futbolistas colombianos.

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Biografía del autor/a

José Iván Alfonso Mantilla, Universidad del Rosario

Fisioterapeuta Universidad del Rosario, Fisioterapeuta Club Deportivo la Equidad Seguros

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Publicado
2020-03-22
Cómo citar
Alfonso Mantilla J. I. (2020). Aptitud física y valoración funcional en futbolistas: revisión de la literatura. VIREF Revista De Educación Física, 8(4), 78-90. Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/viref/article/view/337762
Sección
Artículo de revisión