Protección celular antioxidante y respuesta adaptativa inducida por estímulos oxidativos crónicos

  • Gloria A. Santa-González Universidad de Antioquia
  • Mauricio Camargo Universidad de Antioquia
Palabras clave: adaptación, defensa antioxidante, estrés oxidativo crónico, homeostasis

Resumen

La adaptación es un importante mecanismo por el cual las células y los organismos responden a retos ambientales y a cambiantes necesidades funcionales. Para lograrlo, las células integran cambios en el fenotipo, actividad metabólica, expresión génica y función celular, que deben coordinarse adecuadamente para mantener la viabilidad ante estímulos nocivos, como es el caso del reto ante un exceso de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS). En este estudio, se evaluó la hipótesis que pulsos crónicos y repetitivos con peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2), pueden activar respuestas celulares que resultan en adaptación a estrés oxidativo. Para probar esto, se estableció un modelo in vitro, donde las células de origen mioblastoide C2C12, fueron expuestas a 5 mU/ml de la enzima glucosa oxidasa que durante breves pulsos de 1 hora/día genera una concentración constante de 50 μM de H2O2 en el medio. Este régimen de tratamiento se extendió durante 7 días, tras los cuales se evaluaron los efectos sobre la morfología y viabilidad celular, el contenido de ADN mitocondrial, la acumulación de ROS mitocondrial y la expresión de genes de defensa antioxidante. Los resultados obtenidos apoyan la idea de que los estímulos prolongados, repetitivos y a bajas concentraciones de ROS, pueden actuar como moléculas de señalización induciendo procesos celulares que convergen en la adaptación al estrés oxidativo crónico.

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Publicado
2017-10-02
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