Fuerza de reacción del suelo durante la marcha. Componente vertical y antero-posterior


  • Jesús Cámara Universidad del País Vasco



Palabras clave:

Biomecánica, Plataformas de fuerza, Condición de calzado


En este estudio se realiza una revisión de los parámetros comúnmente analizados de las componentes vertical y antero-posterior de la fuerza de reacción del suelo durante la marcha en diferentes condiciones de calzado. Se presentan los valores de la fuerza de impacto (FZI), la fuerza vertical en el apoyo (FZA), la fuerza vertical en el valle (FZV), la fuerza vertical en el despegue (FZD) y el tiempo hasta la producción de estas fuerzas (TZI, TZA, TZV y TZD, respectivamente).La fuerza antero-posterior en el apoyo del talón (FXI), en el despegue del talón (FXF) y el tiempo hasta la producción de estas fuerzas (TXI y TXF, respectivamente) también se presentan. A la hora de analizar la marcha con plataformas de fuerza se debe controlar la condición de calzado. Se recomienda estandarizar la marca y modelo de calzado durante los registros con plataformas de fuerza.

= 871 veces | PDF
= 979 veces|


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Jesús Cámara, Universidad del País Vasco

Departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva. Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea. España. Grupo de investigación del Laboratoriode Biomecánica y Fisiología de la Facultad de la Actividad Física y del Deporte.


Gritzka, T. L., Fry, L. R., Cheesman, R. & LaVigne, A. (1973). Deterioration of articular cartilage caused by continous compression ni a moving rabbit joint. J Bone Joint Surg, 55-A, 1698-1720.


Hagen, M., Henning, E. & Stieldorf, P. (2011). Lower and upper extremity load in nordic walking in comparison with walking and running. J Appl Biomech, 27(1), 22-31.



Hamill, J. (1996). Proceedings of the XVIV ISBS Symposium, 1996. Evaluating sport shoes using ground reaction force data, Chicago.

Hamill, J. (1999). Fourth Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. Evaluation of shock attenuation, Canmore.

Hawes, D., Light, L. & Repond, E. (1979). Modelling the distortion produced by heel strike transients in soft tissue. J Physiol, 296, 10-11.

Hettinga, B. A., Stefanyshin, D., Fairburn, J. & Worobets, J. T. (2005). The 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. Biomechanical effects of hiking on a non-uniform surface, Cleveland.

House, C. M., Waterworth, C., Allsopp, A., & Dixon, S., J. (2002). The influence of simulated nwear upon the ability of insoles to reduce peak pressures during running when wearing military boots. Gait and Posture, 297-303.


Hreljac, & Marshall, R. N. (1999). Fourth Symposium of the Technical Group on Footwear Biomechanics. Paper presented at the The effect of varying midsole hardness on force attenuation and rearfoot movement during running: a meta-analysis, Canmore.

Hull, M. L., Brewer, & Hawkins, D. (1995). A New Force Plate Design Incorporating Octagonal Strain Rings. J Appl Biomech, 11, 311-321.


Hunt, M.A., Hinman, R.S., Metcalf, B.R., Limb, B.W., Wrigley, T.V., Bowles, K.A., Kemp, & Bennell, K.L. (2010). Quadriceps strength is not related to gait impact loading in knee osteoarthritis. Knee, 17(4), 296-302.



Iatridis, J., Setton, L. A., Weidenbaum, & V.C., M. (1997). The viscoelastic behavior of the non-degenerate human lumbar nucleus pulposus in shear. J Biomech, 30(10), 1005-1013.


IBV. (1997). Dinascan/IBV. Manual de Usuario. Versión 8.0: Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia.

Iida, & Yamamuro, T. (1987). Kinetic analysis of the center of gravity of the human body in normal and pathological gaits. J Biomech, 20(10), 987-995.


Inman, V., Ralston, & Todd, F. (1981). Human Walking. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Inman, V. T. (1966). Human Locomotion. Canad Med Ass J, 94, 1047-1053.

Jefferson, R. J., Collins, J. J., Whittle, M. W., Radin, E. & O'Connor, J. (1990). The role of the quadriceps in controlling impulsive forces around heel strike. Proc Instn Mech Engrs, 204, 21-28.



Johnson, G. R. (1988). The effectiveness of shock-absorbing insoles during normal walking. Prosthet Orthot Int, 12(2), 91-95.



Johnson, G. R. (1990). Measurement of shock acceleration during walking and running using the Shock Meter. Clin Biomech, 5, 47-50.


Jorgensen, & Bojsen-Moller, F. (1989). Shock absobency of factors in the shoe/heel interaction - with special focus on role of the heel pad. Foot & Ankle Int 9(11), 294-299.



Jorgensen, & Ekstrand, J. (1988). Significance of heel pad confinement for the shock absorption at heel strike. Int J Spots Med, 9, 468-473.



Keller, T. S., Weisberger, A. M., Ray, J. L., Hasan, S. S., Shiavi, R. & Spengler, D. M. (1996). Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running. Clin Biomech (11), 253-259.


Kinoshita, H., Bates, B. & DeVita, P. (1985). Biomehanics IX-A. Paper presented at the Intertrial variability for selected running gait parameters, Champaign, Illinois.

Kirtley, C. (2006). Clinical gait analysis. Theory and practice. Elsevier.

Lafortune, M. & Henning, E. M. (1992). Cushioning properties of footwear during walking: accelerometer and force platform measurements. Clin Biomech, 7, 181-184.


Lafortune, M. A., Lake, & Hennig, E. M. (1996). Differential shock transmission response of the human body to impact severity and lower limb posture. J Biomech, 29(12), 1531-1537.


Lake, & Greenhalgh, A. (2005). The 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. Paper presented at the Impact shock measurements during running: correction for angular motion of the shank is necessary, Cleveland.

Lamoreux, L. (1985). Gait Analysis in Theory and Practice. Proceedings of the 1985 Uppsala Gait Analysis Meeting. Paper presented at the Measurement and Analysis of Ground Reaction Forces, Uppsala.

Lanshammar, & Strandberg, L. (1983). Horizontal Floor Reaction Forces and Heel Movements During the Initial Stance Phase. In H. a. K. Matsui, K. (Ed.), Biomechanics, VIII-B. International series of biomechanics, Volume 4B (Vol. 4B, pp. 1123 - 1128): Human Kinetics Publisher, Inc,. Box 5076. Champaign, Illinois 61820.

Lebiedowska, M.K., Wente, T.M. & Dufour, M. (2009). The influence of foot position on body dynamics. J Biomech, 42(6), 762-766.


PMid:19249785 PMCid:PMC2663018

Lee, K.-K., Lafortune, M. & Valiant, G. (2005). The 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. Paper presented at the Effect of running shoes on mechanics of overground and treadmill running, Cleveland.

Lees, & McCullagh, P. J. (1984). Preliminary investigation into the shock absorbency of running shoes and shoe inserts. J Hum Mov Stud, 10, 95-106.

Light, L. H. (1979). Potential implications of heel strike transients. J Physiol, 292, 31-32.

Light, L. H., MacLellan, G. & Klenerman, L. (1980). Skeletal transients on heel strike in normal walking with different footwear. J Biomech, 13, 477-480.


Liu, & Nigg, B. M. (2000). A mechanical model to determine the influence of masses and mass distribution on the impact force during running. J Biomech, 33, 219-224.


Luethi, S., & Stacoff, A. (1987). The Influence of the Shoe on Foot Mechanics in Running. Med of Sport Sci, 25, 72-85.


MacLellan, G. & Vyvyan, B. (1981). Management of pain beneath the heel and achilles tendonitis with visco elastic heel inserts. Brit J of Sports Med, 15(2), 117-121.


PMid:7272653 PMCid:PMC1858735

Martin, P. & Marsh, A. P. (1992). Step length and frequency effects on ground reaction forces during walking. Technical note. J Biomech, 25(10), 1237-1239.


McCrory, J. L., White, S. & Lifeso, R. M. (2001). Vertical ground reaction forces: objective measures of gait following hip arthroplasty. Gait and Posture, 14, 104-109.


Mercer, J. & Vance, J. (2002). Spring-boots can reduce impact in runners. Biomech, 15, 35-42.

Michel, K. J., Kleindienst, F. & Krabbe, B. (2005). The 7h Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics. The effect of different midsole hardness on kinematic and kinetic data during running influenced by varying bodyweight, Cleveland.

Munro, C. F., Miller, D. & Fuglevand, A. J. (1987). Ground Reaction Forces in running: a reexamination. J Biomech, 20(2), 147-155.


Murray, M. P., Kory, R. C., Clarkson, B. & Sepic, S. B. (1966). Comparison of free and fast speed walking patterns of normal men. Amer J Phys Med, 45(1), 8-24.



Nester, C. J., Van der Linden, M. & Bowker, P. (2003). Effect of foot orthoses on the kinematics and kinetics of normal walking gait. Gait and Posture, 17, 180-187.


Nigg, B. (1983). International Symposium on Biomechanical Aspects of Sport Shoes and Playing Surfaces. External force measurements with sport shoe and playing surfaces, Calgary.

Nigg, B., Cole, & Bruggemann, P. (1995). Impact forces during heel-toe running. J Appl Biomech, 11, 407-432.


Nigg, B., Herzog, & Read, L. (1988). Effect of viscoelastic shoe insoles on vertical impact forces in heel-toe running. Am J Sports Med, 16(1), 70-78.



Nigg, B. M. (1987). Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces. J Sports Sci, 5(2), 117-145.



Nigg, B. M., Luethi, S. M., Denoth, & Stacoff, A. (1983). Proceedings of the Eigth International Congress of Biomechanics, Nagoya, Japan.

Nilsson, & Thorstensson, A. (1989). Ground reaction forces at different speeds of human walking and running. Acta Physiol Scand, 2(136), 217-227.



Pelker, R. & Saha, S. (1983). Stress wave propagation in bone. J Biomech, 16(7), 481-489.


Perry, J. (1992). Gait Analysis. Normal and Pathological Function. Yorba Linda, CA.: Slack incorporated.


Plas, F., Viel, & Blanc, Y. (1996). La marcha humana. Paris: Masson.

Pratt, D. J., Rees, P. & Rodgers, C. (1986). Assessment of some shock absorbing insoles (technical note). Prosth Orth Int, 10, 43-45.



Radin, E. L., Ehrlich, M. G., Chernack, R., Abernethy, P., Paul, I. & Rose, R. M. (1978). Effect of Repetitive Impulsive Loading on the Knee Joints of Rabbits. Clin Orth Rel Res (131), 288-293.


Radin, E. L., Orr, R. B., Kelman, J. L., Paul, I. & Rose, R. M. (1982). Effect of prolonged walking on concrete on the knees of sheep. J Biomech, 15(7), 487-492.


Radin, E. L., Paul, I. & Rose, R. M. (1972). Role of mechanical factors in the pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis Lancet, 2, 519-522.


Radin, E. L., Yang, K. H., Riegger, C., Kish, V. & O'Connor, J. (1991). Relationship between lower limb dynamics and knee joint paint. J Ortho Res, 9, 398-405.



Ratcliffe, R. & Holt, K. G. (1997). Low frequency shock absorption in human walking. Gait and Posture, 5, 93-100.


Redfern, M. S., Cham, R., Gielo-Perzack, K., Grönqvist, R., Hirvonen, M., Lanshammar, H. (2001). Biomechanics of slips. Ergon, 44, 1138-1166.



Riegger-Krugh, C. (1997, September 24-27). Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics. Paper presented at the Repetitive impulsive loading: correlation of force plate and observational assessment, Clemson University, South Carolina.

Riegger-Krugh, C. (1998). Combined Sections Meeting of the APTA. Paper presented at the Can forcefulness of heel landing during gait be assessed by observation, BostonRieggerKrugh, C. (1999). Poor shock absorption may contribute to OA. Biomech (June), 33-35.

Rööser, B., Ekbladh, R. & Lidgren, L. (1988). The shock-absorbing effect of soles and insoles. Int Orth, 12, 335-338.



Salathé, E. P. & Arangio, G. A. (1990). The foot as a shock absorber. J Biomech, 23(7), 655-659.


San Tsung, B. Y., Zhang, M., Fuk Tat Mat, A. & Wan Nar Wong, M. (2004). Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution. J Rehab Res Develop, 41(6A), 767-774.



Sánchez Lacuesta, J. J., J.M., P. P., Hoyos Fuentes, J. V., Viosca Herreo, E., Soler Gracia, C., Comín Clavijo, M. (1999). Biomecánica de la Marcha Humana y Patológica (1 ed.). Valencia: Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (IBV).

Scott, S. H. & Winter, D. (1989). Internal forces at chronic running injury sites. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 22(3), 357-369.


Serink, M. T., Nachemson, A. & Hansson, G. (1977). The Effect of Impact Loading on Rabbit Knee Joints. Acta Orthop Scand, 48, 250-262.



Shiba, N., Kitaoka, H. B., Cahalan, T. D. & Chao, E. Y. (1995). Shock-absorbing effect of shoe insert materials commonly used in management of lower extremity disorders. Clin Ortho Rel Res (310), 130-136.


Shorten, M. R. & Winslow, D. S. (1992). Spectral Analysis of Impact Shock During Running. Int J Sport Biomech (8), 288-304.


Simon, S. R., Paul, I., Mansour, J., Munro, M., Abernethy, P. & Radin, E. (1981). Peak dynamic force in human gait. J Biomech, 14, 817-822.


Simon, S. R., Radin, E. L., Paul, I. L. & Rose, R. M. (1972). The response of joints to impact loading II. In vivo behavior of subchondral bone. J Biomech, 5, 267-272.


Smeathers, J. E. (1989). Transient vibrations caused by heel strike. Proc Instn Mech Engrs, 203(4), 181-186.



Stacoff, A., Diezi, C., Luder, G., Stüsi, E. & Krames-de Quervain, I. A. (2005). Ground reaction forces on stairs: effects of stair inclination and age. Gait and Posture (21), 24-38.



Sutherland, D. H., Olshen, R. A., Biden, E. N. & Wyatt, M. P. (1988). The development of mature walking. Philadelphia: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd.

Swigart, J. F., Erdman, A. G. & Cain, P. J. (1993). An energy based method for testing cushioning durability of running shoes. J Appl Biomech, 9, 27-46.


Tesio, L., Lanzi, D. & Detrembleur, C. (1998). The 3-D motion of the centre of gravity of the human body during level walking. I. Normal subjects at low and intermediate walking speeds. Clin Biomech, 13(2), 77-82.


Vaughan, C. L., Davis, B. & O'Connor, J. (1992). Dynamics of Human Gait. Champaign, IL. Human Kinetics.

Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Voloshin, A., Treiger, J. & Isakov, E. (1998). Shock Transmission and Fatigue in Human Running. J Appl Biomech, 14, 300-311.



Verdini, F., Leo, T., Fioretti, S., Benedetti, M. G., Catani, F. & Giannini, S. (2000). Analysis of ground reaction forces by means of wavelet transform. Clin Biomech, 15, 607-610.


Viosca Herrero, E. (1993). Estudio biomecá- nico comparativo entre el patrón de marcha humana normal y el amputado tibial.

Voloshin, A. & Wosk, A. (1982). An In Vivo Study of Low back Pain and Shock Absorption in the Human Locomotor System. J Biomech, 15(1), 21-27.


Voloshin, A., Wosk, J. & Brull, M. (1981). Force Wave Transmission Through the Human Locomotor System. J Biomech Engin, 103, 48-50.



Voloshin, A. S. & Wosk, A. (1981). Influence of artificial shock absorbers on human gait. Clin Ortho, 160, 52-56.


Wakeling, J. M., Liphardt, A. M. & Nigg, B. M. (2003). Muscle activity reduces soft-tissue resonance at heel-strike during walking. J Biomech (36), 1761-1769.


Wakeling, J. M., Tscharner, V. V., Nigg, B. M. & Stergiou, P. (2001). Muscle activity in the leg is tuned is response to ground reaction forces. J Appl Physiol (91), 1307-1317.



Wang, C. L., Shau, Y. W., Hsu, T. C., Chen, H. C. & Chien, S. H. (1999). Mechanical properties of heel pads reconstructed with flaps. J Bone Joint Surg, 81 -B (2), 207-211.


White, S. C., Tucker, C. A., Brangaccio, J. A. & Lin, H. Y. (1996). Relation of vertical ground reaction forces to walking speed. Gait and Posture, 4(2), 206.


White, S. C., Yack, H. J., Tucker, C. A. & Lin, H. Y. (1998). Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces during overground and treadmill walking. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 30(10), 1537-1542.



Whittle, M. W. (1997). Force Platform Measurement of the Heelstrike Transient in normal walking. Gait and Posture, 5, 173 174.


Whittle, M. W. (1999). Generation and attenuation of transient impulsive forces beneath the foot: a review. Gait and Posture (10), 264-275.


Whittle, M. W. (2003). Gait Analysis. An introduction: Butterworth - Heinemann - Elsevier.

Whittle, M. W. & Williams, C. D. (1994, August 18-20). Reliability of force platform data in the estimation of insole shock attenuation. Paper presented at the Proceedings, Eitgth Biennial Conference, Canadian Society for Biomechanics,, Calgary.

Williams, K. R. (1993). Biomechanics of distance running. In M. D. Grabiner (Ed.), Current issues in biomechanics (pp. 3-31). Leeds: Human Kinetics Publishers (Europe) Ltd.

Windle, C. M., Gregory, S. M. & Dixon, S. J. (1999). The shock attenuation characteristics of four different insoles when worn in a military boot during running and marching. Gait and Posture (9), 31-37.


Winter, D. (1979). A new definition of mechanical work done in human movement. J Appl Physiol, 46, 79-83.



Winter, D. (1991). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. (Third edition ed.). Waterlo: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Withnall, R., Eastaugh, J. & Freemantle, N. (2006). Do shock absorbing insoles in recruits undertaking high levels of physical activity reduce lower limb injury?. A randomized controlled trial. J Royal Soc Med, 99(1), 32-37.


Woodard, C. M., James, M. K. & Messier, S. P. (1999). Computational Methods Used in the Determination of Loading Rate: Experimental and Clinical Implications. J Appl Biomech, 15, 404-417.


Wosk, A. & Voloshin, A. (1985). Low Back Pain: Conservative Treatment with Artificial Shock Absorbers. Arch Phys Med Rehab, 66, 145-148.

Wosk, J. & Voloshin, A. (1981). Wave attenuation in skeletons of young healthy persons. J Biomech, 14(4), 261-267.


Wright, I. C., Neptune, R. R., van den Bogert, A. J. & Nigg, B. M. (1998). Passive regulation of impact forces in heel-toe running. Clin Biomech(13), 521-531.


Wright, I. C., Neptune, R. R., van den Bogert, A. J. & Nigg, B. M. (1999). The influence of foot positioning on ankle sprains. J Biomech, 33, 513-519.


Yves Blanc, G. A., Michele Esnault, J.-M. C., Serge Mesure, E.-M. L., Pélissier, J., Pennecot, G. F., Christine Tardieu, F. P. (2002). La marcha humana, la carrera y el salto (1 ed.). Paris: Masson.




Cómo citar

Cámara, J. (2012). Fuerza de reacción del suelo durante la marcha. Componente vertical y antero-posterior. Educación Física Y Deporte, 30(2), 607–625. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.efyd.11319



Artículos de demanda continua

Artículos similares

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 > >> 

También puede {advancedSearchLink} para este artículo.