The Newton-Leibniz controversy
Keywords:Newton, Leibniz, Philosophy of science, Philosophy of mathematics
Newton (1643-1727) is considered one of the most important figures in the history of modern science. Just as Descartes is considered the founder of the modern philosophy of subjectivity, Newton is seen as the founder of the modern mathematical science of nature, in particular of mechanics, which has operated for about two centuries in a paradigmatic way that we usually do characterize as "classical physics". Although Newton is by no means the only innovator of modern science - alongside him others such as Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Descartes also participated -, nevertheless, thanks to the introduction of the force of gravitation, he succeeded in unifying different forms of movement, such as the terrestrial ones -free fall, the pendulum movement, the launch- and the celestial ones, -the movements of the planets which with Galileo still remained disconnected next to each other and demonstrate them as a modification of the same force fundamental and give, thanks to it, a unitary, systematic structure to the theory of movement. No other system represents Kuhn's concept of the paradigm as faithfully as Newtonian mechanics.
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