Nursing and patients with delirium: a literature review


  • Ángela María Henao-Castaño RN, Ph.D. Professor, Universidad Libre, Cali, Colombia. email:
  • María Consuelo Del Pilar Amaya-Rey RN, Ph.D. Professor, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. email:


Central nervous system diseases; intensive care units; nursing care; review.


Objective. This work sought to analyze the scientific production regarding delirium in patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU).

Synthesis. Delirium (cognitive alteration) occurs in acute and fluctuating manner in patients in ICU. It is a risk factor for mortality and prolonged stay in ICU. Its diagnosis is derived from an objective assessment with widely disseminated validated instruments, available in Spanish and other languages. Strategies to prevent delirium in ICU are documented.

Conclusion. Implementation of these strategies to prevent, monitor, and control delirium in patients hospitalized in ICU must be a priority of nursing research in our setting.

= 570 veces | RESUMEN | RESUMO
= 9 veces| | PDF (ENGLISH)
= 278 veces| | HTML (ENGLISH)
= 62 veces| | HTML (ESPAÑOL)
= 506 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


(1) Ramos I, Perez D, Takao F, Almanza J. d. Incidencia de delirium en las unidades intensivo y cuidado coronario del hospital militar Central. Rev Neurol Neurocir Psiquiat. 2007; 40(2):41-19.

(2) Wesley E, Shintani A, Truman B, Sperof T, Gordon S, et al.Delirium as a predictor of mortality in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit. JAMA, 2004; 291(14):1753-62.

(3) McCusker J, Cole M, Abrhamowicz Han-Ling, Podoba J, Leila R. Delirium predicts 12 month mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2001; 162(25):457-463

(4) Lin S, Liu C, Whang C, Lin H, Huang C, Huang P, et al. The impact of delirium on the survival of mechanically ventilated patients. Crit care Med. 2004; 32(11):2254-9.

(5) Truman B, Wesley E. Monitoring delirium in critically ill patients. Crit Care Nurse.2003; 23(2):25-38.

(6) Morandi A, Pandharipande P, Trabucchi M, Rozzini R, Mistraletti G, Trompeo A. at al. Understanding international differences in terminology for delirium and other types of acute brain dysfunction in crtically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2008; (34):1907-15.

(7) Bourne R. Delirium and use of sedation agents in intensive care. Nurs Crit Care.2008;13(4):195-202

(8) Meagher D. O´Hanlon D, O'Mahony E, Casey PR, Trzepacz PT. Relationship between symptoms and motoric subtype of delirium. J Neuropsychiatric Clin Neurosci. 2000;12 (1):51-56.

(9) Irwin R, Rippe J. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la agitación y el delirio en el paciente crítico: Manual de cuidados intensivos. 3rd Ed. Madrid: Marban Libros; 2002.

(10) Meagher D, O¨Hanlon D, Raju B, Leonard M, Donnelly S, Saunders J, et al. A new date-based motor subtype schema for delirium. J Neuropsychiatric Clin Neurosci. 2008; 20(2):185-192

(11) Ouimet S, Riker R, Bergeron N, Cossette M, Kavanagh B, Skrobik Y. Subsyndromal delirium in the ICU: evidence for a disease spectrum. Intensive Care Med. 2007; (33):1007-13

(12) Thomason J, Shintani A, Peterson J, Pun B. Intensive care unit delirium is an independent predictor of longer hospital stay: a prospective analysis of 261 non-ventilated patients. Crit Care. 2005; (9):375-81

(13) Inouye SK, Viscoli CM, Horwitz RI, Hurst LD, Tinetti ME. A predictive model for delirium in hospitalized elderly medical patients based on admission characteristics. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119(6): 474-1.

(14) Alexander E. Delirium in the intensive care unit: Medications as risk factors. Crit care nurse. 2009; 29(1):85-7.

(15) Dubois M, Bergeron N, Dumont M, Dial S, Skrobik Y. Delirium in an intensive care unit: a study of risk factors. Intensive Care Med. 2001; 27: 1297-304.

(16) Capuzzo M, Valpondi V, Cingolani E, De Luca S, Gianstefani G, Grassi L, et al. Application of the Italian version of the intensive care unit memory tool in the Clinical setting. Crit Care. 2004; 8(1):48-54.

(17) Granberg A, Malmros Cw, Bergbom L, Lundberg D. Intensive care unit syndrome delirium is associated with anemia, drug therapy and duration of ventilation treatment. Acta anaesthesiol scand. 2002; 26:726-31.

(18) McGuire B, Basten C. Intensive care unit syndrome. Arch Intern Med. 2000; 160(10):906-9.

(19) Chamorro C. Medicina critica práctica. Analgesia, sedación y bloqueo neuromuscular del paciente crítico. Madrid: Semicyuc;2009.

(20) Chavez G O, Mendoza M, Guedez R, Zavala M, Lazorza C, Sedaciòn en pacientes en ventilación mecánica. Parte I. Medicrit; 2005; 2(4):49-54.

(21) Kress JP, Hall JB. Sedation in the mechanically ventilated patient. Crit Care Med. 2006; 34(10): 2541-46

(22) Weinert Craig. Sprenkle Mark. Post-ICU consequences of patient wakefulness and sedative exposure during mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med.2008; 34:82-90.

(23) Shehabi Y, Grant P, Wolfenden H, Hammond N, Bass F, Campbell M, Chen J. Prevalence of delirium with dexmedetomidine compared with morphine based therapy after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial (DEXmedetomidine COmpared to Morphine-DEXCOM Study). Anesthesiology. 2009;111(5):1075-84.

(24) Schweickert WD, Gehlbach BK, Pohlman AS, Hall JB, Kress JP. Daily interruption of sedative infusions and complications of critical illness in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2004;32(6): 1272– 6.

(25) Hogarth DK, Hall J. Management of sedation in mechanically ventilated patients. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2004; 10(1):40-6.

(26) Strøm T, Martinussen T, Toft P. A Protocol of no sedation for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a randomized trial. Lancet. 2010; 375(9713):475-80.

(27) Wang Kefang, Zhang Bing. LI Chunyand, Wang Chen. Qualitative analysis of patient’s intensive care experience during mechanical ventilation. J Clin nurs. 2008;18;183-90.

(28) P Van de leur Johannes, P Van Der Cees, Loef Bert, Deelman Betto. Discomfort and factual recollection in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care. 2004; (8):467-73.

(29) Granja C, Lopes A, Moreira S, Dias C, Costa-Pereira A, Carneiro A; JMIP Study Group.Crit Care. 2005; 9(2):R96-109.

(30) Roberts B, Chaboyer W. Patients´dreams and unreal experiences following intensive care unit admission. Nurs Crit Care. 2004; 9(4):173-9.

(31) Samuelson K, Lundeberg D, Fridlund B. Stressful experiencies in relation to depth of sedation in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurs Crit Care. 2007; 12(2):93-104 .

(32) Calvete R, García MB, Uriel P, Fernandez V, Medin B. El sueño de los pacientes ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos y los factores que los alteran. Enferm Intensiva. 2000; 11(1):10-6.

(33) Van Eijk M, Slooter A. Delirium in intensive care unit patients. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;14(2):141-7.

(34) McNicoll L, Pisani MA, Ely EW, Gifford D, Inouye SK. Detection of delirium in the intensive care unit: comparison of confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit with confusion assessment method ratings. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53(3):495-500.

(35) Luetz A, Heymann A, Radtke FM, Chenitir C, Neuhaus U, Nachtigall I, et al. Different assessment tools for intensive care unit delirium: which score to use? Crit Care Med. 2010;38(2):409-18.

(36) Lin SM, Liu CY, Wang CH, Lin HC, Huang CD, Huang PY, et al. The impact of delirium on the survival of mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2004; 32 (11):2254-2259

(37) Tobar E, Romero C, Galleguillos T, Fuentes P, Cornejo R, Lira MT, et al. Método para la evaluación de la confusión en la unidad de cuidado intensivo para el diagnóstico de delírium: adaptación cultural y validación de la versión en idioma español. Med Intensiva.2010; 34(1):4-13.

(38) Toro AC, Escobar LM, Franco JG, Diaz-Gomez JL, Muñoz JF, Molina F et al. Versión en español del método para la evaluación de la confusión en cuidado intensivo, estudio piloto de validación. Med Intensiva.2010; 34 (1):14-21.

(39) Stawiki SP, Gerlach A. Delirium assessment in the intensive care unit: An overview of objective diagnostic criteria and scoring tools. Scientist. 2008; 2(4):13-6.

(40) Marulanda F, Ocampo J, Osorno D. Delirium: Un gigante de la geriatría. Manizales: Editorial Universidad de Caldas; 2009. P. 87-106.

(41) King J, Gratix A. Delirium intensive care. Crit Care Pain. 2009; 9(5):144-8.

(42) Carrillo R, Sosa J. Delirium en el enfermo grave. Med Int Mex. 2010; (26)2:130-9.

(43) Palencia E, Romera MA, Silva JA. Delirio en el paciente crítico. Med Intensiva. 2008;(32 Supl 1):77-91.

(44) Skrobik Y, Bergeron N. Olanzapine Vs Haloperidol: treating delirium in a critical care setting. Intensive Care Med. 2004; (30):444-9.

(45) Marshall M, Soucy M. Delirium in the intensive care unit. Crit Care Nurs Quat. 2003; 26(3):172-8.

(46) Truman B, Wesley E. Monitoring delirium in critically ill patients. Crit Care Nurse. 2003; 23(2):25-37.

(47) Milbrandt EB, Deppen S, Harrison OL, Elu WE. Costs associated with delirium in mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2004; 32(4):955-62.

(48) Suhonen R, Gustafsson ML, Katajisto J, Välimäki M, Leino-Kilpi H. Nurses' perceptions of individualized care. J Adv Nurs. 2010; 66(5):1035-46.

(49) Suhonen R, Valimaki M, Leino H. A review of outcomes of indidualised nursing interventions on adult patients. J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17:843-60.

(50) Radwin L, Alster K. Individualized nursing care: an empirically generated definition. Int Nurs Rev. 2002;49: 54-63.

(51) Samuelson K, Lundeber D, Fridlun B. Stressful experiencies in relation to depth of sedation in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurs Crit Care. 2007; 12(2):93-104.

(52) Hine K. The use of physical restraint in critical care. Nurs Crit Care. 2007; 12(1):6-10.

(53) Calvete R, García M, Uriel P, Fernández V, Medín B. El sueño de los pacientes ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos y los factores que los alteran. Enferm Intensiva.2000; 11(1):10-6.



How to Cite

Henao-Castaño, Ángela M., & Del Pilar Amaya-Rey, M. C. (2014). Nursing and patients with delirium: a literature review. Investigación Y Educación En Enfermería, 32(1). Retrieved from




Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.