Transport of explosive chemicals from the landmine burial in granular soils
Keywords:advection, evaporation, explosive related chemicals, infiltration, landmine burial, preferential flow paths
The transport of explosive-related chemicals (ERCs) in soils was studied during water infiltration and evaporation processes as a function of soil water content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in two 100 cm uniform cylindrical columns packed with homogeneous sand, and instrumented with air and water pressure sensors and sampling ports to monitor hydraulic conditions and ERCs concentration profiles in soil. TNT and DNT crystals were placed in a porous membrane and buried as a point source near the surface of the soil. Spatial and temporal concentration distributions of conservative solutes were used to evaluate transport behavior of TNT and DNT in soils. Velocity variations and comparison with the numericalmodel HYDRUS-2D indicate the presence of preferential flow paths. Water content and movement near TNT and DNT buried source highly influence their transport in soils and near soil-atmospheric surfaces. The formation of preferential flow paths are attributed to disturbances of soil properties by burial of ERC sources and water content heterogeneities. By the analysis of velocity variations, disturbances near the buried source resulted in hydraulic heterogeneities and preferential flow near the source, which influence their transport away from the source. Preferential flow causes faster movement and greater dispersion of the solutes during infiltration periods, and influences the rate of mixing in the system.
S. W. Webb, K. Pruess, J. Phelan, S. Finsterle. “Development of a Mechanistic Model for the Movement of Chemical Signatures from Buried Landmines/UXO”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets IV. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Vol. 3710. 1999. pp. 270-282.
S. W. Webb, J. M. Phelan. “Effect of Diurnal and Seasonal Weather Variations on the Chemical Signatures from Buried Landmines/UXO”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets V. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Vol. 4038. 2000. pp. 474-488.
C. W. Fetter. Contaminant Hydrogeology. Ed. Prentice Hall Inc. New Jersey. 1999. pp. 53-78, 200-204.
M. Ghodrati, W. A. Jury. “A Field Study Using Dyes to Characterize Preferential Flow of Water”. Soil Science Society of America Journal. Vol. 54. 1990. pp. 1558- 1563.
S. A. Hagrey, T. Schubert-Klempnauer, D. Wachsmuth, J. Michaelsen, R. Meissner. “Preferential Flow: First Results of a Full-Scale Flow Model”. Geophysical Journal International. Vol. 138. 2002. pp. 643-654.
D. Wildenschild, K. H. Jensen. “Laboratory Investigations of Effective Flow Behavior in Unsaturated Heterogeneous Sands”. Water Resources Research. Vol. 35. 1999. pp. 17-28.
J. M. Phelan, S. W. Webb, M. Gozdor, M. Cal, J. L. Barnett. “Effect of Soil Wetting and Drying on DNT Vapor Flux – Laboratory Data and T2TNT Model Comparisons”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets VI. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Vol. 4394. 2001. pp. 868-878.
J. P. Gutiérrez. Effects of Flow Reversal on Two- Dimensional Transport of Explosive Chemicals in Soils. Thesis. University of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico. 2008. pp. 78-89, 107-112.
A. C. Padilla, I. Y. Padilla, I. Santiago. “Multiphase Extraction Sampling of Explosives in Unsaturated Soils”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XI. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Orlando. FL. Vol. 6217. 62173C. 2006. pp. 1-11.
G. I. Molina. I. Padilla. M. Pando, D. Pérez. “Field Lysimeters for the Study of Fate and Transport of Explosive Chemical in Soils under Variable Environmental Conditions”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XI. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Orlando. FL. 2006. Vol. 6217.62137A. pp. 1-12.
S. Rodríguez. I. Padilla, I. Santiago. “Development of a Multi-Scale Packing Methodology for Evaluating Fate and Transport Processes of Explosive-Related Chemicals in Soil Physical Models”. Proceedings in Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XI. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Orlando. FL. 2006. Vol. 6217. 6217U. pp. 1-10.
J. M. Phelan, S. W. Webb. “Chemical Detectionof Buried Landmines”. Mine Warfare Association. Proceeding of the 3rd International Symposium on Technology and the Mine Problem. 1998. SAND-98-0576C CONF-980427. pp. 1-11.
J. M. Brannon, C. B. Price, P. S. Yost, C. Hayes, B. Porter. “Comparison of Environmental Fate and Transport Process Descriptors of Explosives in Saline and Freshwater Systems”. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 50. 2005. pp. 247-251.
A. Torres. I. Padilla, S. Hwang. “Physical Modeling of 2,4-DNT Gaseous Diffusion through Unsaturated Soil”. Proceedings of SPIE. Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets XII. SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Orlando. FL. 2007. Vol. 6553. 65531Q. pp. 1-12.
J. Šimůnek, M. Šejna, M.Th. van Genuchten. “The HYDRUS Software Package for Simulating the Two and Three Dimensional Movement of Water”. Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-Saturated Media. U.S. version 1.0. Salinity Laboratory. Riverside. California. 2006. pp. 203.
I. Y. Padilla, T. C. Jim Yeh, M. H. Conklin. “The Effect of Water Content on Solute Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media”. Water Resources Research. Vol. 35. 1999. pp. 3303-3313.
Y. M. Oliver, K. R. J. Smettem. “Parameterisation of Physically Based Solute Transport Models in Sandy Soils”. Australian Journal of Soil Research. Vol. 41. 2003. pp. 771-788.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Revista Facultad de Ingeniería
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. The material published in the journal can be distributed, copied and exhibited by third parties if the respective credits are given to the journal. No commercial benefit can be obtained and derivative works must be under the same license terms as the original work.