Transport of explosive chemicals from the landmine burial in granular soils
AbstractThe transport of explosive-related chemicals (ERCs) in soils was studied during water infiltration and evaporation processes as a function of soil water content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in two 100 cm uniform cylindrical columns packed with homogeneous sand, and instrumented with air and water pressure sensors and sampling ports to monitor hydraulic conditions and ERCs concentration profiles in soil. TNT and DNT crystals were placed in a porous membrane and buried as a point source near the surface of the soil. Spatial and temporal concentration distributions of conservative solutes were used to evaluate transport behavior of TNT and DNT in soils. Velocity variations and comparison with the numericalmodel HYDRUS-2D indicate the presence of preferential flow paths. Water content and movement near TNT and DNT buried source highly influence their transport in soils and near soil-atmospheric surfaces. The formation of preferential flow paths are attributed to disturbances of soil properties by burial of ERC sources and water content heterogeneities. By the analysis of velocity variations, disturbances near the buried source resulted in hydraulic heterogeneities and preferential flow near the source, which influence their transport away from the source. Preferential flow causes faster movement and greater dispersion of the solutes during infiltration periods, and influences the rate of mixing in the system.
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