Passive sampling in the study of dynamic and environmental impact of pesticides in water
Keywords:xenobiotics, metabolites, passive sampling, SPMD, POCIS and green analytical chemistry, persistence
Pesticides are the most applied substances in agricultural activities which can contaminate water bodies by direct or indirect discharge, but large volumes and natural transformation processes can decrease the concentration of these substances and their degradates in watershed. Currently, conventional extraction methods such as: solid phase extraction (SPE) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) among others do not permit low detection limits. However low levels of pesticides and degradates could produce chronic toxicity in different species. Nowadays, passive sampling is widespread used for monitoring pesticides and for ensuring the water quality and bioaccumulation studies due to this methodology allows the detection of pollutant from parts per quadrillion (ppq). The most popular membranes used in passive sampling are the semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD), which permit the concentration of lipophilic substances and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), which permits concentration of the hydrophilic ones. This review is about the application of passive samplers in pesticides analysis, the importance of these devices in the bioaccumulation studies and the evaluation of the ecotoxicological risks. Finally, passive sampling allows reducing costs, time and the amount of organic solvent used which classifies it within the environmental trends of “green analytical chemistry”.
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