Development and implementation of an impedance measurement technique for bovine wet bone samples

  • María Elena Moncada Universidad del Valle
  • Alfredo Martínez Universidad del Valle
  • Carlos Rafael Pinedo Universidad del Valle
  • Héctor Cadavid Universidad del Valle
Keywords: Bioelectricity, electrical properties of bone tissue, bio-impedance measurement


This paper presents a development and implementation of a methodology to find the electrical properties (conductivity and permittivity) of cortical and medullar tissue in bovine femur samples. The sample size was ten centimeters; they were obtained of healthy and young animals, and after four days animals were dead. Soft parts were removed from the samples and the samples were vacuum packed at 0°C until the tests were done. Experimental protocols for maintenance and treatment of samples were developed. A couple of contact electrodes were built for the measurements and the electrode’s impedance was determined. A parallel RC circuit was connected to the measurement system to decrease the electrode’s impedance effect. The measurements were done for 100 Hz and 120 Hz. The measured variables were impedance (Z) and angle (θ), and the calculated variables were conductivity (σ) and permittivity (ε) by means of mathematical equations. The results were in agreement with literature values.

= 11 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 15 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

María Elena Moncada, Universidad del Valle

Grupo de Investigación en Alta Tensión – GRALTA, Laboratorio de Alta Tensión

Alfredo Martínez, Universidad del Valle

Grupo de Investigación en Ortopedia y Traumatología – TRAUMATOR, Laboratorio de Alta Tensión

Carlos Rafael Pinedo, Universidad del Valle

Grupo de Investigación en Percepción y Sistemas Inteligentes – PSI , Laboratorio de Alta Tensión

Héctor Cadavid, Universidad del Valle

Grupo de Investigación en Alta Tensión – GRALTA, Laboratorio de Alta Tensión


H. Schwan. Electrical properties of tissue and cell suspensions, in advances in biological and medical physics, Academic Press, New York. Vol. 5. 1957. p. 147.

C. Durney, H. Massoudi, M. Iskander. Radiofrequency radiation dosimetry handbook, Brooks Air Force Base. 1986. USAFSAM-TR. pp. 85-73.

L. Geddes, L. Barker. “The specific resistance of biological material - a compendium of data for the biomedical engineer and physiologist”. Medicine and Biology Engineering. Vol. 5. 1967. pp. 271-293.

M. Stuchly, S. Stuchly. “Dielectric properties of biological substances – tabulated”. Journal of Microwave Power. Vol. 15. 1980. pp. 19-26.

K. Foster, H. Schwan. “Dielectric properties of tissues and biological materials: A critical review”, Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 17. 1989. pp.25-104.

F. Hart, N. Berner, R. McMillen. “Modeling the Anisotropic Electrical Properties of Skeletal Muscle”. Physical Medical Biology. Vol. 44. 1999. pp. 413- 421.

S. Gabriel, R. Lau, C. Gabriel. “The dielectric properties of biological tissues. 2. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz”. Physical Medical Biology. Vol. 41. 1996. pp. 2251-2269.

E. Fukada, I .Yasuda. “On the piezoelectric effect in bone”. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan. Vol. 12. 1957. pp.1158-62.

R. Aaron, D. McK, B. Simon. “Treatment of nonunions with electric and electromagnetic fields”. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. Vol. 419. 2004. pp. 21-29.

C. Polk, E. Postow. Biological Effects of electromagnetic fields. Hand book. by CRC Press LLC, 2nd ed., New York , Washington DC. 1995. pp: 25-96.

D. Chakkalakal, L. Lippiello, R. Shindell, and J. Connolly. “Electrophysiology of Direct Current Stimulation of Fracture Healing in Canine Radius”. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 37. 1990. pp. 1048-1058.

S. Saha, and P. Williams. “Electric and dielectric properties of wet human cortical bone as a function of frequency”. IEEE Transaction on Biomedical Engineering. Vol. 39. 1992. pp. 1298-1304.

How to Cite
Moncada M. E., Martínez A., Pinedo C. R., & Cadavid H. (2014). Development and implementation of an impedance measurement technique for bovine wet bone samples. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (44), 75-82. Retrieved from