Cation and anion monitoring in a wastewater treatment pilot project
Keywords:constructed wetlands (CWs), wastewater monitoring, ions, reuse
The purpose of wastewater treatment is water reuse. It reduces potable water consumption while preventing fresh water contamination. Water reuse schemes have already been successfully established in different locations. Treatments using constructed wetlands are widely studied as a more economical and environmentally-friendly alternative for treating wastewater. In these systems, the control of inorganic species is also important. This study monitored cations (Na+ , K+ , Li+ and NH4 + ) and anions (SO4 2-, NO3 - , NO2 - , Cl- and PO4 3-) in a constructed wetlands (CWs) system, a rainwater catchment system, sewage treatment system, and in fi nal reuse water. The monitoring was accomplished using ion chromatographic analysis. The removal values found in the CWs were: 99.9% K+ , NH4 + and SO4 2-, 52.6% Na+ , 89.8% NO3 - , 98.2% NO2 - , 63.6% Cl- and 96.8% PO4 3-. The results also showed that CWs system is suitable for removing ions from the wastewater.
D. Baumann. “Social acceptance of water reuse”. Applied Geography. Vol. 3. 1983. pp. 79-84.
O. Al-Jayyousi. “Greywater reuse: towards sustainable water management”. Desalination. Vol. 156. 2003. pp. 181-192.
J. March, M. Gual, F. Orozco. “Experiences on greywater re-use for toilet flushing in a hotel (Mallorca Island, Spain)”. Desalination. Vol. 164. 2004. pp. 241-247.
M. Greenway. “The role of constructed wetlands in secondary effluent treatment and water reuse in subtropical and arid Australia”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 25. 2005. pp. 501-509.
R. Kim, S. Lee, J. Jeong, J. Lee, Y. Kim. “Reuse of greywater and rainwater using fiber filter media and metal membrane”. Desalination. Vol. 202. 2007. pp. 326-332.
M. Ortiz, R. Raluy, L. Serra. “Life cycle assessment of water treatment technologies: wastewater and waterreuse in a small town”. Desalination. Vol. 204. 2007. pp. 121-131.
A. Urkiaga, L. Fuentes, B. Bis, E. Chiru, B. Balasz. F. Hernández. “Development of analysis tools for social, economic and ecological effects of water reuse”. Desalination. Vol. 218. 2008. pp. 81-91.
S. Godfrey, P. Labhasetwar, S. Wate. “Greywater reuse in residential schools in Madhya Pradesh, India—A case study of cost–benefit analysis”. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. Vol. 53. 2009. pp. 287-293.
Z. Li, F. Boyle, A. Reynolds. “Rainwater harvesting and greywater treatment systems for domestic application in Ireland”. Desalination. Vol. 260. 2010. pp. 1-8.
A. Kivaisi. “The potential for constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries: a review”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 16. 2001. pp. 545-560.
M. Qadir, D. Wichelns, L. Raschid, P. McCornick, P. Drechsel, A. Bahri, P. Minhas. “The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries”. Agricultural Water Management. Vol. 97. 2010. pp. 561- 568.
J. Kihila, K. Mtei, K. Njau. “Wastewater treatment for reuse in urban agriculture; the case of Moshi Municipality, Tanzania”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. Vol. 72-75. 2014. pp. 104-110. 1
M. Goddard. “Urban greywater reuse at the D’LUX Development”. Desalination. Vol. 188. 2006. pp. 135- 140.
M. Yıldırım, B. Topkaya. “Assessing Environmental Impacts of Wastewater Treatment Alternatives for Small-Scale Communities”. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water. Vol. 40. 2012. pp. 171-178.
K. Gunes. “Restaurant Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetlands”. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water. Vol. 35. 2007. pp. 571-575.
F. Ye, Y. Li. “Enhancement of nitrogen removal in towery hybrid constructed wetland to treat domestic wastewater for small rural communities”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 35. 2009. pp. 1043-1050.
S. Li, H. Li, X. Liang, Y. Chen, S. Wang, F. Wang. “Phosphorus removal of rural wastewater by the paddy-rice-wetland system in Tai Lake Basin”. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 171. 2009. pp. 301-308.
L. Xu, H. You, J. Li, Q. Zhang, J. Jiang, L. Weiming, Z. Sun. “Analysis on Affected Factors of Treatment Efficiency of Rural Sewage Removal with Constructed Wetland”. Procedia Environmental Sciences. Vol. 10. 2011. pp. 2314-2319.
P. Kuschk, A. Wießner, U. Kappelmeyer, E. Weißbrodt, M. Kästner, U. Stottmeister. “Annual cycle of nitrogen removal by a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow in a constructed wetland under moderate climate”. Water Research. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 4236-4242.
S. Wu, D. Austin, L. Liu, R. Dong. “Performance of integrated household constructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment in rural areas”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 37. 2011. pp. 948-954.
D. Gao, Q. Hu. “Bio-contact oxidation and greenhousestructured wetland system for rural sewage recycling in cold regions: A full-scale study”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 49. 2012. pp. 249-253.
S. Mbuligwe. “Comparative effectiveness of engineered wetland systems in the treatment of anaerobically pretreated domestic wastewater”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 23. 2004. pp. 269-284.
L. Wang, H. Gan, F. Wang, X. Sun, Q. Zhu. “Characteristic Analysis of Plants for the Removal of Nutrients from a Constructed Wetland using Reclaimed Water”. CLEAN – Soil, Air, Water. Vol. 38. 2010. pp. 35-43.
B. Zhang, J. Zheng, R. Sharp. “Phytoremediation in Engineered Wetlands: Mechanisms and Applications”. Procedia Environmental Sciences. Vol. 2. 2010. pp. 1315- 1325.
L. Yang, H. Chang, M. Huang. “Nutrient removal in gravel- and soil-based wetland microcosms with and without vegetation”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 18. 2001. pp. 91-105.
N. Gottschall, C. Boutin, A. Crolla, C. Kinsley, P. Champagne. “The role of plants in the removal of nutrients at a constructed wetland treating agricultural (dairy) wastewater, Ontario, Canada”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 29. 2007. pp. 154-163.
J. Iamchaturapatr, S. Yi, J. Rhee. “Nutrient removals by 21 aquatic plants for vertical free surface-flow (VFS) constructed wetland”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 29. 2007. pp. 287-293.
S. Liu, B. Yan, L. Wang. “The layer effect in nutrient removal by two indigenous plant species in horizontal flow constructed wetlands”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 37. 2011. pp. 2101-2104.
I. Kotti, G. Gikas, V. Tsihrintzis. “Effect of operational and design parameters on removal efficiency of pilotscale FWS constructed wetlands and comparison with HSF systems”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 36. 2010. pp. 862-875.
V. Emongor, G. Ramolemana. “Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana”. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. Vol. 29. 2004. pp. 1101-1108.
P. Nyenje, J. Foppen, S. Uhlenbrook, R. Kulabako, A. Muwanga. “Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa — A review”. Science of The Total Environment. Vol. 408. 2010. pp. 447-455.
H. Wu, J. Zhang, P. Li, J. Zhang, H. Xie, B. Zhang. “Nutrient removal in constructed microcosm wetlands for treating polluted river water in northern China”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 37. 2011. pp. 560-568.
L. Kröpfelová, J. Vymazal, J. Švehla, J. Štíchová. “Removal of trace elements in three horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the Czech Republic”. Environmental Pollution. Vol. 157. 2009. pp. 1186-1194.
S. Krupa. “Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on terrestrial vegetation: a review”. Environmental Pollution. Vol. 124. 2003. pp. 179-221.
X. Dong, G. Reddy. “Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community and nitrification rates in constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 40. 2012. pp. 189-197.
P. Rolf. Reações de química na análise de água. 1st ed. Ed. Arte Visual. Fortaleza, Brasil. 2009. pp. 1-334.
G. Hussain, A. Al-Saati. “Wastewater quality and its reuse in agriculture in Saudi Arabia”. Desalination. Vol. 123. 1999. pp. 241-251.
R. Rodrigues, V. Júnior, J. Lollo. “Influência dos constituintes do esgoto no colapso de um solo arenoso”. Eng. Sanit. Ambient. Vol. 15. 2010. pp. 29-36.
C. Rodrigues, J. Silveira, E. Silva, A. Dutra, R. Viégas. “Transporte e distribuição de potássio atenuam os efeitos tóxicos do sódio em plantas jovens de pinhãomanso”. Rev. Brasileira de Ciência do Solo. Vol. 36. 2012. pp. 223-232.
V. Tkatcheva, I. Holopainen, H. Hyvärinen, J. Kukkonen. “The responses of rainbow trout gills to high lithium and potassium concentrations in water”. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol. 68. 2007. pp. 419-425.
F. Souza. “Tratamento da depressão”. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. Vol. 21. 1999. pp. 18-23.
V. Etges, M. Ferreira. A produção de tabaco: impacto no ecossistema e na saúde humana na região de Santa Cruz do Sul/RS. 1st ed. Ed. EDUNISC. Santa Cruz do Sul, Brasil. 2006. pp. 1-248.
D. Skoog, F. Holler, T. Nieman. Principles of Instrumental Analysis. 5th ed. Ed. Saunders College Pub. California, USA. 1998. pp. 1-849.
American Public Health Association, Water Environment Federation. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. 21st ed. Ed. American Public Health Association. Washington, USA. 2005. pp. 1-55.
Ministério da Saúde. Portaria 2914: Dispõe sobre os procedimentos de controle e de vigilância da qualidade da água para consumo humano e seu padrão de potabilidade. Diário Oficial da União, Seção 1 de 14 de dezembro de 2011. Brasilia, Brasil. 2011. pp. 1-7.
N. Melián, J. Sadhwani, S. Pérez. “Saline waste disposal reuse for desalination plants for the chloralkali industry: The particular case of pozo izquierdo SWRO desalination plant”. Desalination. Vol. 281. 2011. pp. 35-41.
E. Viana, J. Kiehl. “Doses de nitrogênio e potássio no crescimento do trigo”. Bragantia. Vol. 69. 2010. pp. 975- 982.
N. Widiastuti, H. Wu, H. Ang, D. Zhang. “Removal of ammonium from greywater using natural zeolite”. Desalination. Vol. 277. 2011. pp. 15-23.
F. Yao, J. Sun, C. Tang, W. Ni. “Kinetics of Ammonium, Nitrate and Phosphate Uptake by Candidate Plants Used in Constructed Wetlands”. Procedia Environmental Sciences. Vol. 10. Part B. 2011. pp. 1854-1861.
X. Zhang, P. Liu, Y. Yang, W. Chen. “Phytoremediation of urban wastewater by model wetlands with ornamental hydrophytes”. Journal of Environmental Sciences. Vol. 19. 2007. pp. 902-909.
S. Ojoawo, G. Udayakumar, P. Naik. “Phytoremediation of Phosphorus and Nitrogen with Canna x generalis Reeds in Domestic Wastewater through NMAMIT Constructed Wetland”. Aquatic Procedia. Vol. 4. 2015. pp. 349-356.
T. Horn, F. Zerwes, L. Kist, Ê. Machado. “Constructed wetland and photocatalytic ozonation for university sewage treatment”. Ecological Engineering. Vol. 63. 2014. pp. 134-141.
C. Lee, T. Fletcher, G. Sun. “Nitrogen removal in constructed wetland systems”. Engineering in Life Sciences. Vol. 9. 2009. pp. 11-22.
G. Merlin, J. Pajean, T. Lissolo. “Performances of constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment in rural mountainous area”. Hydrobiologia. Vol. 469. 2002. pp. 87-98.
O. Shelef, A. Gross, S. Rachmilevitch. “The use of Bassia indica for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands”. Water Research. Vol. 46. 2012. pp. 3967- 3976.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/deed.en
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
ShareAlike — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
The material published in the journal can be distributed, copied and exhibited by third parties if the respective credits are given to the journal. No commercial benefit can be obtained and derivative works must be under the same license terms as the original work.