Fuzzy feedback algorithm for the spectral handoff in cognitive radio networks





cognitive radio, decision making, feedback algorithms, spectrum mobility, vertical handoff


This  work  proposes  a  feedback  algorithm  based  on  a  Fuzzy  Analytical   Hierarchical  Process  Method  (FAHP)  to  improve  decision  making  for  the  spectral  handoff.   We  named  it  Feedback  FAHP  (FFAHP).  To  assess  the  performance  level  of  the  developed   algorithms, a comparative analysis was made between the proposed FFAHP algorithm and  the most relevant spectrum handoff algorithms in the current literature. These algorithms  were  assessed  with  the  same  decision  criteria,  which  are,  the  probability  of  channel   availability,  estimated  channel  time  availability,  the  signal  to  interference  plus  noise  ratio   and  bandwidth.  Unlike  other  related  papers,  benchmarking  was  validated  through  a  trace   of  real  spectrum  occupation  data  captured  in  the  frequency  band  GSM  and  Wi-Fi,  which   model  the  real  behavior  of  primary  users.  In  the  validation  phase,  eight  assessment   scenarios  were  proposed  to  consider,  two  types  of  networks:  GSM  and  Wi-Fi,  two  kinds  of   applications:  real-time  and  best-effort,  two  traffic  levels:  high  and  low,  and  five  evaluation   metrics:  number  of  handoffs,  the  number  of  failed  handoff,  bandwidth,  delay,  throughput.   The results show that the proposed FFAHP Algorithm provides a performance improvement.  The  FFAHP  Algorithm  supplies  an  efficient  and  effective  process  for  selecting  frequency   channels. The results indicate that the proposed FFAHP Algorithm provides a performance  improvement. The FFAHP Algorithm supplies an efficient and effective method for selecting  frequency channels. The results also show that the FFAHP Algorithm has a low average rate  of handoffs, an effective use of the

= 118 veces | PDF
= 132 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Enrique Rodriguez de la Colina, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica


I. F. Akyildiz, W. Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “A survey on spectrum management in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 40–48, 2008.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Y. Lee, M. C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: A survey,” Comput. Networks, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2127–2159, 2006.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Y. Lee, and K. R. Chowdhury, “CRAHNs: Cognitive radio ad hoc networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 810–836, 2009.

M. Ozger and O. B. Akan, “On the utilization of spectrum opportunity in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 157–160, 2016.

E. Ahmed, A. Gani, S. Abolfazli, L. J. Yao, and S. U. Khan, “Channel Assignment Algorithms in Cognitive Radio Networks: Taxonomy, Open Issues, and Challenges,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 795–823, 2016.

A. Mehbodniya, F. Kaleem, K. K. Yen, and F. Adachi, “A fuzzy MADM ranking approach for vertical mobility in next generation hybrid networks,” in 4th International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), St. Petersburg, Russia, 2012, pp. 262–267.

B. Van, R. V. Prasad, and I. Niemegeers, “A survey on handoffs - Lessons for 60 GHz based wireless systems,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 64–86, 2012.

A. Ahmed, L. M. Boulahia, and D. Gaïti, “Enabling vertical handover decisions in heterogeneous wireless networks: A state-of-the-art and a classification,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 776–811, 2014.

A. L. Ramaboli, O. E. Falowo, and A. H. Chan, “Bandwidth aggregation in heterogeneous wireless networks: A survey of current approaches and issues,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1674–1690, 2012.

I. Christian, S. Moh, I. Chung, and J. Lee, “Spectrum mobility in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 114–121, 2012.

J. Marinho and E. Monteiro, “Cognitive radio: Survey on communication protocols, spectrum decision issues, and future research directions,” Wirel. Networks, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 147–164, 2012.

L. C. Wang, C. W. Wang, and C. J. Chang, “Modeling and analysis for spectrum handoffs in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1499–1513, 2012.

E. Rodríguez, C. Ramirez, and E. Carrillo, “Multiple attribute dynamic spectrum decision making for cognitive radio networks,” in 8th International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks(WOCN), Paris, France, 2011, pp. 1–5.

C. W. Wang and L. C. Wang, “Modeling and analysis for proactive-decision spectrum handoff in cognitive radio networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dresden, Germany, 2009, pp. 1–6.

G. Tsiropoulos, O. Dobre, M. Ahmed, and K. Baddour, “Radio Resource Allocation Techniques for Efficient Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 824–847, 2016.

Y. Saleem and M. H. Rehmani, “Primary radio user activity models for cognitive radio networks: A survey,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 43, pp. 1–16, 2014.

A. S. Cacciapuoti, L. P. Marcello, and M. A. Rahman, “Channel availability for mobile cognitive radio networks,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 47, pp. 131–136, 2015.

K. Kumar, A. Prakash, and R. Tripathi, “Spectrum handoff in cognitive radio networks: A classification and comprehensive survey,” J. Netw. Comput. Appl., vol. 61, pp. 161–188, 2016.

A. Lertsinsrubtavee and N. Malouch, “Hybrid Spectrum Sharing Through Adaptive Spectrum Handoff and Selection,” IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2781–2793, 2016.

E. Stevens, Y. Lin, and V. Wong, “An MDP-based vertical handoff decision algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 1243–1254, 2008.

L. Mohamed, C. Leghris, and A. Abdellah, “A hybrid approach for network selection in heterogeneous multi-access environments,” in 4th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS), Paris, France, 2011, pp. 1–5.

S. F. Yang and J. S. Wu, “A IEEE 802.21 handover design with QOS provision across WLAN and WMAN,” in International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems (ICCCAS), Xiamen, China, 2008, pp. 548–552.

J. A. Zapata, M. D. Arango, and W. Adarme, “Applying fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy (FEAHP) for selecting logistics software,” Ing. e Investig., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 94–99, 2012.

S. J. Yang and W. C. Tseng, “Design novel weighted rating of multiple attributes scheme to enhance handoff efficiency in heterogeneous wireless networks,” Comput. Commun., vol. 36, no. 14, pp. 1498–1514, 2013.

E. Stevens, J. D. Martinez, and U. Pineda, “Evaluation of vertical handoff decision algorightms based on MADM methods for heterogeneous wireless networks,” J. Appl. Res. Technol., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 534–548, 2012.

W. Zhang, “Handover decision using fuzzy MADM in heterogeneous networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Atlanta, USA, 2004, pp. 653–658.

E. Stevens and V. Wong, “Comparison between vertical handoff decision algorithms for heterogeneous wireless networks,” in IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference(VTC), Melbourne, Australia, 2006, pp. 947–951.

Q. Song and A. Jamalipour, “A Network Selection Mechanism for Next Generation Networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Seoul, Korea, 2005, pp. 1418–1422.

F. Bari and V. Leung, “Application of ELECTRE to network selection in a hetereogeneous wireless network environment,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Hong Kong, China, 2007, pp. 3813–3818.

W. Ying, Y. Jun, Z. Yun, L. Gen, and Z. Ping, “Vertical Handover Decision in an Enhanced Media Independent Handover Framework,” in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Las Vegas, USA, 2008, pp. 2693–2698.

E. Stevens, R. Gallardo, U. Pineda, and J. Acosta, “Application of MADM method VIKOR for vertical handoff in heterogeneous wireless networks,” IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 599–602, 2012.

M. R. Kibria, A. Jamalipour, and V. Mirchandani, “A location aware three-step vertical handoff scheme for 4G/B3G networks,” in Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM), St. Louis, USA, 2005, pp. 2752–2756.

F. Liu et al., “A Spectrum Handoff Strategy Based on Channel Reservation for Cognitive Radio Network,” in 3rd International Conference on Intelligent System Design and Engineering Applications (ISDEA), Hong Kong, China, 2013, pp. 179–182.

J. Fu, J. Wu, J. Zhang, L. Ping, and Z. Li, “A Novel AHP and GRA Based Handover Decision Mechanism in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks,” in 1st International Conference Information Computing and Applications(ICICA), Tangshan, China, 2010, pp. 213–220.

I. Joe, W. Kim, and S. Hong, “A Network Selection Algorithm considering Power Consumption in Hybrid Wireless Networks,” in 16th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), Honolulu, USA, 2007, pp. 1240–1243.

G. Gódor and G. Détári, “Novel network selection algorithm for various wireless network interfaces,” in 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit, Budapest, Hungary, 2007, pp. 1–5.

S. M. Liu, S. Pan, Z. K Mi, Q. M. Meng, and M. H. Xu, “A simple additive weighting vertical handoff algorithm based on SINR and AHP for heterogeneous wireless networks,” in International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation (ICICTA), Changsha, China, 2010, pp. 347–350.

S. F. Yang, J. S. Wu, and H. H. Huang, “A vertical Media-Independent Handover decision algorithm across Wi-Fi™ and WiMAX™ networks,” in 5th IFIP International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Surabaya, Indonesia, 2008, pp. 1-5.

A. Sgora, D. D. Vergados, and P. Chatzimisios, “An access network selection algorithm for heterogeneous wireless environments,” in IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), Riccione, Italy, 2010, pp. 890–892.

M. Lahby, L. Cherkaoui, and A. Adib, “Hybrid network selection strategy by using M-AHP/E-TOPSIS for heterogeneous networks,” in 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems: Theories and Applications (SITA), Rabat, Morocco, 2013, pp. 1–6.

C. Hernández, D. Giral, and I. Páez, “Benchmarking of the Performance of Spectrum Mobility Models in Cognitive Radio Networks,” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res., vol. 10, no. 21, pp. 2015.

C. Ramírez and V. M. Ramos, “Handover vertical: un problema de toma de decisión múltiple,” in Congreso Internacional sobre Innovación y Desarrollo Tecnológico(CIINDET), Cuernavaca Morelos, México, 2010, pp. 727-733.

C. Ramirez and V. Ramos, “On the Effectiveness of Multi-criteria Decision Mechanisms for Vertical Handoff,” in IEEE 27th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), Barcelona, Spain, 2013, pp. 1157–1164.

R. Hübner, Strategic supply chain management in process industries: An application to specialty chemicals production network design, 1st ed. New York, USA: Springer, 2007.

M. Suganya and H. Anandakumar, "Handover based spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks," in International Conference on Green Computing, Communication and Conservation of Energy (ICGCE), Chennai, India, 2013, pp. 215-219.

Y. Wang and H. Haas, "Dynamic Load Balancing With Handover in Hybrid Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 33, no. 22, pp. 4671-4682, 2015.

C. Hernández, H. Vasquez, and I. Páez, “Proactive Spectrum Handoff Model with Time Series Prediction,” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res., vol. 10, no. 21, pp. 42259–42264, 2015.

C. Hernández, I. Páez, and D. Giral, “Modelo AHP-VIKOR para handoff espectral en redes de radio cognitiva,” Tecnura, vol. 19, no. 45, pp. 29–39, 2015.

T. Tanino, T. Tanaka, and M. Inuiguchi, Multi-objective programming and goal programming: theory and applications, 1st ed. New York, USA: Springer, 2003.

J. R. Gallardo, U. Pineda, and E. Stevens, “VIKOR method for vertical handoff decision in beyond 3G wireless networks,” in 6th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE), Toluca, México, 2009, pp. 1-5.

T. L. Saaty, “How to make a decision: The analytic hierarchy process,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 9–26, 1990.

E. Ahmed, L. J. Yao, M. Shiraz, A. Gani and S. Ali, "Fuzzy-based spectrum handoff and Channel selection for Cognitive Radio Networks," in International Conference on Computer, Control, Informatics and Its Applications (IC3INA), Jakarta, Indonesia, 2013, pp. 23-28.

Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Facilitating opportunities for flexible, efficient, and reliable spectrum use employing cognitive radio technologies, 2005. [Online]. Available: https://www.ntia.doc.gov/legacy/ntiahome/fccfilings/2005/cogradio/ETDocket03-108_02152005.htm. Accessed on: Mar. 06, 2015.

A. Dejonghe et al., Flexible and Spectrum Aware Radio Access through Measurements and Modelling in Cognitive Radio Systems, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.ict-faramir.eu/fileadmin/user_upload/deliverables/FARAMIR-D3.2-Final.pdf. Accessed on: May 02, 2016.

R. Etkin, A. Parekh, and D. Tse, “Spectrum sharing for unlicensed bands,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 517–528, 2007.

H. Zheng and L. Cao, “Device-centric spectrum management,” in 1st IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), Baltimore, USA, 2005, pp. 56–65.

V. Kanodia, A. Sabharwal, and E. Knightly, “MOAR: A multi-channel opportunistic auto-rate media access protocol for ad hoc networks,” in 1st International Conference on Broadband Networks (BroadNets), San Jose, USA, 2004, pp. 600–610.

S. Krishnamurthy, M. Thoppian, S. Venkatesan, and R. Prakash, “Control channel based MAC-layer configuration, routing and situation awareness for cognitive radio networks,” in IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), Atlantic City, USA, 2005, pp. 455-460.

E. Tragos, S. Zeadally, A. Fragkiadakis, and V. Siris, “Spectrum assignment in cognitive radio networks: A comprehensive survey,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 1108–1135, 2013.

L. Giupponi and A. I. Pérez, “Fuzzy-based spectrum handoff in cognitive radio networks,” in 3rd International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CrownCom), Singapore, Singapore, 2008, pp. 1-6.

S. K. Patil and R. Kant, “A fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS framework for ranking the solutions of Knowledge Management adoption in Supply Chain to overcome its barriers,” Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 679–693, 2014.

L. F. Pedraza, F. Forero, and I. Paez, “Evaluación de ocupación del espectro radioeléctrico en Bogotá-Colombia,” Ing. y Cienc., vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 127–143, 2014.




How to Cite

Hernández Suárez, C. A., Pedraza Martínez, L. F., & Rodriguez de la Colina, E. (2016). Fuzzy feedback algorithm for the spectral handoff in cognitive radio networks. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (81), 47–62. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.redin.n81a05