Hotspots, daily cycles and average daily dose of PM2.5 in a cycling route in Medellin
AbstractBicycle sharing systems are an alternative to promote sustainable transportation and active living. Bicycle users are exposed to traffic and to pollutants in their trips; therefore, the analysis of pollutant concentrations and user exposure is of utmost importance for planning the expansion of creation of these transportation systems. In order to evaluate the concentrations and exposure of cyclists to PM2.5, we designed a route within the bicycle sharing system of Medellin and implemented a sensor-based monitoring protocol. Measurements were carried out with a low-cost sensor validated with local information. Potential average daily dose of PM2.5 was calculated based on the average time of exposure and the level of effort made by the user while riding. Hotspots were identified as the zones on the route with concentrations three standard deviations above the average for each route. PM2.5 concentrations were found to be highly variable in terms of hour of the day and season of the year. When the concentrations are higher, the potential average daily dose is doubled. There are two types of hotspot according to the built environment configuration on the route, and the concentrations in these hotspots are reaching values considered as harmful for sensitive population groups. The present results are key for the discussion leading to the implementation of measures that will improve the welfare of cyclists in Medellin, that may span from infrastructure intervention to early warning systems.
P. Demaio, “Bike-sharing: History, impacts, models of provision, and future,” J. Public Transp., vol. 12, no. 4, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://doi.org/10.5038/2375-0901.12.4.3
P. Midgley, “Bicycle-sharing schemes: enhancing sustainable mobility in urban areas,” United nations department of economic and social affairs, New York, USA, Tech. Rep. CSD19/2011/BP8, May 2011.
G. Stewart, N. K. Anokye, and S. Pokhrel, “What interventions increase commuter cycling? a systematic review,” BMJ Open, vol. 5, no. 8, August 14 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmjopen-2015-007945
C. H. V. Cooper, “Using spatial network analysis to model pedal cycle flows, risk and mode choice,” J. Transp. Geogr., vol. 58, January 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2016.12.003
L. Mertens and et al., “Built environmental correlates of cycling for transport across europe,” Heal. Place, vol. 44, March 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2017.01.007
Moving Toward Active Transportation: How Policies Can Encourage Walking and Bicycling, Active Living Research, San Diego, CA, 2016.
L. Mertens and et al., “Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis,” BMC Public Health, vol. 16, August 12 2016. [Online].Available: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3471-5
L. Mertens and et al., “Perceived environmental correlates of cycling for transport among adults in five regions of Europe,” Obes. Rev., vol. 17, January 2016. [Online]. Available: https: //doi.org/10.1111/obr.12379
A. Y. Bigazzi and M. A. Figliozzi, “Review of urban bicyclists’ intake and uptake of traffic-related air pollution,” Transp. Rev., vol. 34, no. 2, April 08 2014. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/ 01441647.2014.897772
A. Y. Bigazzi, M. A. Figliozzi, W. Luo, and J. F. Pankow, “Breath biomarkers to measure uptake of volatile organic compounds by bicyclists,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 50, no. 10, April 20 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01159
D. W. Graff and et al., “Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in healthy young adults,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 117, no. 7, July 2009. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp0900558
M. Tainio and et al., “Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?” Prev. Med., vol. 87, June 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.002
Y. Hao and et al., “Prospective evaluation of respiratory health benefits from reduced exposure to airborne particulate matter,” Int. J. Environ. Health Res., vol. 27, no. 2, April 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2017.1292497
M. Kampa and E. Castanas, “Human health effects of air pollution,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 151, no. 2, January 2008. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.012
J. Peters, J. Theunis, M. V. Poppel, and P. Berghmans, “Monitoring PM10 and ultrafine particles in urban environments using mobile measurements,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 13, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2012.06.0152
H. Haddad and A. de Nazelle, “The role of personal air pollution sensors and smartphone technology in changing travel behaviour,” J. Transp. Heal., vol. 11, December 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2018.08.001
C. Johansson and et al., “Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 584-585, April 15 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.scitotenv.2017.01.145
S. Simões, J. Carvalho, M. A. Martins, and C. Pinheiro, “An overview of particulate matter measurement instruments,” Atmosphere, vol. 6, no. 9, September 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/ 10.3390/atmos6091327
W. E. Wilson and et al., “Monitoring of particulate matter outdoors,” Chemosphere, vol. 49, no. 9, December 2002. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00270-9
B. R. Gurjar, T. M. Butler, M. G. Lawrence, and J. Lelieveld, “Evaluation of emissions and air quality in megacities,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, no. 7, March 2008. [Online]. Available: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.048
C. Carnevale and et al., “An integrated assessment tool to define effective air quality policies at regional scale,” Environ. Model. Softw., vol. 38, December 2012. [Online]. Available: https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.004
(2018) Air pollution. World Health Organization. Accessed Sep. 10, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/35cbxlM
J. Bedoya and E. Martinez, “Calidad del aire en el valle de aburrá. antioquia colombia,” Rev. Dyna, vol. 76, no. 158, pp. 7–15, Dec. 2008.
A. M. Rendón, J. F. Salazar, C. A. Palacio, and V. Wirth, “Temperature inversion breakup with impacts on air quality in urban valleys influenced by topographic shading,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., vol. 54, no. 2, February 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10. 1175/JAMC-D-14-0111.1
Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá. (2017, Jan. 29) Resolución 1379 de 2017. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/2QogKCP
Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá. (2015, November) Plan maestro metropolitano de la bicicleta del valle de aburrá (PMB2030). [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/2Xm8Uep
M. Gao, J. Cao, and E. Seto, “A distributed network of low-cost continuous reading sensors to measure spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 in xi’an, china,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 199, April 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.01.013
Y. Hu, J. Fan, H. Zhang, X. Chen, and G. Dai, “An estimated method of urban PM2.5 concentration distribution for a mobile sensing system,” Pervasive Mob. Comput., vol. 25, January 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2015.06.004
P. Berghmans and et al., “Exposure assessment of a cyclist to PM10 and ultrafine particles,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 407, no. 4, February 2009. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008. 10.041
F. Corno, T. Montanaro, C. Migliore, and P. Castrogiovanni, “Smartbike: An iot crowd sensing platform for monitoring city air pollution,” Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 7, no. 6, December 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.11591/ijece.v7i6.pp3602-3612
B. Elen and et al., “The aeroflex: A bicycle for mobile air quality measurements,” Sensors, vol. 13, no. 1, December 2012. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.3390/s130100221
P. B. English, M. J. Richardson, and C. Garzón, “From crowdsourcing to extreme citizen science: Participatory research for environmental health,” Annu. Rev. Public Heal., vol. 39, April 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013702
J. Gabrys, “The becoming environmental of computation. from citizen sensing to planetary computerization,” Tecnoscienza, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 5–21, 2017.
M. Madelin and S. Duché, “Low cost air pollution sensors: New perspectives for the measurement of individual exposure?” in 9th International Conference on Urban Climate, Toulouse, France, 2015, pp. 1–6.
(2018) Particle sensing. Shinyei Technology. Accessed Sep. 10, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/343eghd
(2015) The air casting platform. Habitatmap. Accessed Aug. 01, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://aircasting.org/
S. Sousan, K. Koehler, L. Hallett, and T. M. Peters, “Evaluation of consumer monitors to measure particulate matter,” J. Aerosol Sci., vol. 107, May 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jaerosci.2017.02.013
A. C. Rai and et al., “End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 607- 608, December 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. scitotenv.2017.06.266
K. Pearson, “Note on regression and inheritance in the case of two parents,” Proc. R. Soc. London, vol. 58, pp. 240–242, 1895.
B. Efron, “Better bootstrap confidence intervals,” J. Am. Stat. Assoc., vol. 82, no. 397, pp. 171–185, Mar. 1987.
Cielómetro cl51. Vaisala. Accessed Sep. 20, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/2QAUZzQ
S. Emeis, K. Schäfer, and C. Münkel, “Long-term observations of the urban mixing-layer height with ceilometers,” in IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., Lyngby, Denmark, 2008, pp. 012–027.
M. Wiegner and et al., “What is the benefit of ceilometers for aerosol remote sensing? an answer from EARLINET,” Atmos. Meas. Tech., vol. 7, 2014. [Online]. Available: https: //doi.org/10.5194/amtd-7-2491-2014
Exposure Factors Handbook, The United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2011.
O. A. Fajardo and N. Y. Rojas, “Particulate matter exposure of bicycle path users in a high-altitude city,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 46, January 2012. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011. 09.047
A. Y. Watson, R. R. Bates, and D. Kennedy, Air Pollution, the Automobile, and Public Health. Washington, US: National Academies Press, 1988.
S. S. Shapiro and M. B. Wilk, “An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples),” Biometrika, vol. 52, no. 3- 4, December 1965. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1093/ biomet/52.3-4.591
J. Kuula and et al., “Applicability of optical and diffusion chargingbased particulate matter sensors to urban air quality measurements,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 19, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.04.0143
L. Herrera, “Caracterización de la capa límite atmosférica en el Valle de Aburrá a partir de la información de sensores remotos y radiosondeos,” M.S. thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia, 2015.
Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible. (2017, Nov. 01) Resolución no. 2254. [Online]. Available: https://bit.ly/37nQ0bB
J. W. Cherrie and et al., “Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution,” Occup. Environ. Med., vol. 75, no. 6, June 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2017-104765
S. S. Zhou and et al., “Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses,” J. Thorac. Dis., vol. 10, no. 3, March 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.03.103
K. Ardon, Y. W. Huang, and D. J. Cziczo, “Laboratory studies of collection efficiency of sub-micrometer aerosol particles by cloud droplets on a single-droplet basis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys., vol. 15, August 19 2015. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.5194/ acp-15-9159-2015
L. Chen, C. Liu, L. Zhang, R. Zou, and Z. Zhang, “Variation in tree species ability to capture and retain airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5),” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, June 2017. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03360-1
B. A. Maher, I. A. M. Ahmed, B. M. Davison, V. Karloukovski, and R. Clarke, “Impact of roadside tree lines on indoor concentrations of traffic-derived particulate matter,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 47, no. 23, November 2013. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1021/ es404363m
Estudio del valor histórico, cultural, paisajístico y evaluación de impactos del componente ambiental para la construcción del tramo 2BMetroplús en escenarios con y sin proyecto, municipio de Envigado Antioquia, Metroplús and Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Envigado Antioquia, 2017.
Copyright (c) 2020 Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
All the texts included in the Revista Facultad de Ingenieria Universidad de Antioquia -redin- are protected by copyrights. According to the law, their reproduction through any means, physical or electronic, without written consent by the Editorial Committee is forbidden. Complete texts of the articles will be fully and publically available, which means that they can be read, downloaded, copied, distributed, printed, searched for, or linked to. The opinions expressed in the published articles specifically belong to the authors and are not necessarily the same of the Editorial Committee or of the School of Engineering Management.