Is biogasoline an environmentally-acceptable alternative in Colombia?


  • William Andrés Ocampo Duque Pontificia Universidad Javeriana



Alternative fuels, biogasoline, gasohol, air pollution


Colombian government is currently promoting the commercialization and use of biogasoline in the country; this process started on November 1, 2005. Biogasoline (gasohol or E10 blend) is an ethanol-gasoline blend with 10 v/v % of ethanol. Ethanol is being produced by fermentation of sugarcane, maize, wheat or cassava crops. Both the government and the ethanol manufacturers have defended the potential of biogasoline in reducing the environmental deleterious effects that result from the use of fossil fuels in the transportation sector. However, there is scarce evidence in the scientific literature of favorable environmental impacts due to the use of gasoline oxygenated with 10 v/v % ethanol. Moreover, there is a worldwide controversy about using this type of modified fuel. A detailed scientific review showing the questionable environmental benefits of ethanol-gasoline blends is presented in this work. Potential release of highly toxic pollutants, contribution to the formation of photochemical smog and greenhouse gases, environmental sustainability, and groundwater pollution risk issues resulting from the deployment of E10 fuels are widely discussed.

= 172 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 70 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


“Ley 693 de 2001”. Congreso de la República de Colombia. En: Consultada el 21 de octubre de 2005.

Federación Nacional de Biocombustibles. El alcohol carburante, una alternativa inmediata como combustible para Colombia. En: Consultada el 23 de octubre de 2005.

“Arranca el automóvil limpio en Colombia”. Diario el País, 30 de octubre de 2005. En: Consultada el 30 de octubre de 2005.

Ecopetrol. “Llega la ola verde”. Carta Petrolera, número 111 (mayo-junio de 2005). En: el 29 de octubre de 2005.

R. K. Niven. “Ethanol in gasoline: environmental impacts and sustainability review article”. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol. 9. 2005. pp. 535-555.

G. Z. Fu, A.W. Chan, D.E. Minns. “Life cycle assessment of bio-ethanol derived from cellulose”. Interna tional Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. Vol. 8. 2003. pp. 137-141.

J. M. Henke, G. Klepper, N. Schmitz. “Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?” Energy. Vol. 30. 2005. pp. 2617-2635.

P. R. D. Williams. “Data available for evaluating the risks and benefits of MTBE and ethanol as alternative fuel oxygenates”. Risk Analysis. Vol. 23. 2003. pp. 1085-1115.

T. Reichhardt, “Fuel additives put under scrutiny – again”. Nature. Vol. 397. 1999. pp. 96-97.

M. Peplow, “Alcohol fuels not so green”. News@Nature (27 de junio de 2005) News. 2005.

S. Kim, B. E. Dale. “Life cycle assessment of various cropping systems utilized for producing biofuels: Bioethanol and bioDiesel”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 29. 2005. pp. 426-439.

B. Wahlund, J. Yan, M. Westermark. “Increasing biomass utilization in energy systems: A comparative study of CO2 reduction and cost for different bioenergy processing options”. Biomass and Bioenergy. Vol. 26. 2004. pp. 531-544.

F. Manzini, “Inserting renewable fuels and technologies for transport in Mexico City Metropolitan Area”.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Vol. 31. 2006. pp. 327-335.

C.-H. Wang, S.-S. Lin, H.-L. Chang “Effect of oxygenates on exhaust emissions from two-stroke motorcycles”. Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering. Vol. 37. 2002. pp. 1677-1685.

C. N. Hamelinck, A. P. C. Faaij. “Outlook for advanced biofuels”. Energy Policy (en prensa, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.06.012).

B. Q. He, H. X. Wang, J. M. Hao, X. G. Yan, H. H. Xiao. “A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 949-957.

S.T. Leong, S. Muttamara, P. Laortanakul. “Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand’s alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emisión”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 3495-3503.

W. D. Hsieh, R. H. Chen, T. L. Wu, T. H. Lin. “Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 403-410.

S. G. Poulopoulos, D. P. Samaras, C. J. Philippopoulos. “Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 35. 2001. pp. 4399-4406.

L. W. Jia, M. Q. Shen, J. Wang, M. Q. Lin. “Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine”. Journal of Hazardous Materials. Vol. 123. 2005. pp. 29-34.

S. M.Correa, E. M. Martins, G. Arbilla. “Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in a high traffic street of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 23-29.

D. D. A. Azevedo, C. Y. M. Dos Santos, F. R. De Aquino Neto. “Identification and seasonal variation of atmospheric organic pollutants in Campos dos Goytacazes, Brazil”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 2383-2395.

E. Grosjean, D. Grosjean, L. F. Woodhouse, Y. J. Yang. “Peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate in Porto Alegre, Brazil”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 2405-2419.

D. Grosjean, E. Grosjean, L. F. R. Moreira. “Speciated ambient carbonyls in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil”. Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 1389-1395.

F. E. Ahmed “Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline”. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 123. 2001. pp. 89-113.

R. Magnusson, C. Nilsson, B. Andersson. “Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline as fuel”. Environmental Science & Technology. Vol. 36. 2002. pp. 1656-1664.

K. T. Knapp, F. D. Stump, S. B. Tejada. “The effect of ethanol fuel on the emissions of vehicles over a wide range of temperatures”. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. Vol. 48. 1998. pp. 646-653.

F. D. Stump, K. T. Knapp, W. D. Ray. “Influence of ethanol-blended fuels on the emissions from three pre-1985 light-duty passenger vehicles””. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. Vol. 46. 1996. pp. 1149-1161.

E. Zervas, X. Montagne, J. Lahaye. “The influence of gasoline formulation on specific pollutant emissions”. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. Vol. 49. 1999. pp. 1304-1314.

S. G. Poulopoulos, C. J. Philippopoulos. “The effect of adding oxygenated compounds to gasoline on automotive exhaust emissions”. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. Vol. 125. 2003. pp. 344-350.

E. M. Martins, G. Arbilla. “Computer modeling study of ethanol and aldehyde reactivities in Rio de Janeiro urban air”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 1715-1722.

EPA, Integrated Risk Information System. En: Consulta el 28 de octubre de 2005.

J. R. Moreira, J. Goldemberg. “The alcohol program”. Energy Policy. Vol. 27. 1999. pp. 229-245.

J. V. de Assuncao, U. R. Pesquero, R. E. Bruns, L. R. F. Carvalho. “Dioxins and furans in the atmosphere of São Paulo City, Brazil”. Chemosphere. Vol. 58. 2005. pp. 1391-1398.

M., Schuhmacher, J. L. Domingo. “Long-term study of environmental levels of dioxins and furans in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator”. Environment International. Vol. 32. 2006. pp. 397-404.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. “Health and environmental assessment of the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate”. Report to the California Environmental Policy Council in Response to Executive Order D-5-99, Sacramento, CA, UCRL-AR 135949, Vol. 3-5; 1999.

L. G. Anderson, J. A. Lanning, R. Barrell, J. Miyagishima, R. H. Jones, P. Wolfe. “Sources and sinks of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: An analysis of Denver’s ambient concentration data”. Atmospheric Environment. Vol. 30. 1996. pp. 2113-2123.

C. Hodge, “Comment: More evidence mounts for banning, not expanding, use of ethanol in US gasoline”. Oil and Gas Journal. Vol. 101. 2003. pp. 18-20.

C. Hodge, “Ethanol use in US gasoline should be banned, not expanded”. Oil & Gas Journal. Vol. 100. 2002. pp. 20-30.

H. Bayraktar, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of using gasoline-ethanol blends in spark-ignition engines”. Renewable Energy. Vol. 30. 2005. pp. 1733-1747.

CSIRO/BTRE/ABARE. 2003. “Appropriateness of a 350 Million Litre biofuels target”. Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Canberra. En: Consultada el 19 de octubre de 2005.

R. Aulich, X. M. He, A. A. Grisanti, C. L.Knudson. “Gasoline evaporation-ethanol and nonethanol blends”. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. Vol. 44. 1994. pp. 1004-1009.

R. French, P. Malone. “Phase equilibria of ethanol fuel blends”. Fluid Phase Equilibria. Vol. 228. 2005. pp. 27-40.

Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, National Research Council. “Ozone-forming potential of reformulated gasoline”. Washington D. C. 1999.

H. L., MacLean, L. B. Lave. “Evaluating automobile fuel/propulsion system technologies”. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. Vol. 29. 2003. pp. 1-69.

California Air Resources Board, Resolution 98-78, Sacramento, CA (1998) 11 Dec. En: Consultada el 20 de octubre de 2005.

M. F. Andrade, R. Y. Ynoue, R. Harley, A. H. Miguel. “Air quality model simulating photochemical formation of pollutants: the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil”. International Journal of Environment and Pollution. Vol. 22. 2004. pp. 460-475.

M. Jaramillo, M. Núñez, W. Ocampo, D. Pérez, G. Portilla. “Modelación fotoquímica del ozono en Cali-Yumbo”. En VIII Congreso La Investigación en la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, 20-23 de septiembre de 2005.

M. Jaramillo, M. Núñez, W. Ocampo, D. Pérez, G. Portilla. “Inventario de emisiones de contaminantes atmosféricos convencionales en la zona de Cali - Yumbo”. Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia. Vol. 31. 2004. pp. 38-48.

T. Shih, Y. Rong, T. Harmon, M. Suffet. “Evaluation of the Impact of Fuel Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates on Groundwater Resources”. Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 38. 2004. pp. 42-48.

M. L. B. Da Silva, P. J. J. Álvarez. “Effects of ethanol versus MTBE on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene natural attenuation in aquifer columns”. Journal of Environmental Engineering-Asce. Vol. 128. 2002. pp. 862-867.

S. E. Powers, C. S. Hunt, S. E. Heermann, H. X. Corseuil, D. Rice, P. J. J. Alvarez. “The transport and fate of ethanol and BTEX in groundwater contaminated by gasohol”. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 31. 2001. pp. 79-123.

C. J. McDowell, S. E. Powers. “Mechanisms affecting the infiltration and distribution of ethanol-blended gasoline in the vadose zone”. Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 1803-1810.

C. S. Chen, P. S. C. Rao, J. J. Delfino. “Oxygenated fuel induced cosolvent effects on the dissolution of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil”. Chemosphere. 2005. pp. 1572-1582.

T. Lanzer, O. F. von Meien, C. I. Yamamoto. “A predictive thermodynamic model for the Brazilian gasoline”. Fuel. Vol 84. 2005. pp. 1099-1104.

H. X. Corseuil, B. I. A. Kaipper, M. Fernandes. “Cosolvency effect in subsurface systems contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and ethanol”. Water Research. Vol. 38. 2004. pp. 1449-1456.

S. E. Heermann, S. E. Powers. “Modeling the partitioning of BTEX in water-reformulated gasoline systems containing ethanol”. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. Vol. 34. 1998. pp. 315-341.

S. B. F. Reckhorn, L. V. Zuquette, P. Grathwohl. “Experimental investigations of oxygenated gasoline dissolution”. Journal of Environmental Engineering. Vol. 127. 2001. pp. 208-216.

H. Haskew and Associates, Inc. 2001. “Emission effects (permeation) of ethanol in gasoline”. En: Consultada el 19 de octubre de 2005.

C. J. McDowell, S. E. Powers, T. Buscheck. “Behavior of Gasoline Pools Following a Denatured Ethanol SIPI”. Ground Water. Vol. 41. 2003. pp. 746-757.

N. Dakhel, G. Pasteris, D. Werner, P. Hohener. “Smallvolume releases of gasoline in the vadose zone: Impact of the additives MTBE and ethanol on groundwater quality”. Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 37. 2003. pp. 2127-2133.

R. A. Deeb, J. O. Sharp, A. Stocking, S. McDonald, K. A. West, M. Laugier, P. J. J. Alvarez, M. C. Kavanaugh, L. Alvarez Cohen. “Impact of ethanol on benzene plume lengths: Microbial and modeling studies”. Journal of Environmental Engineering-Asce. Vol. 128. 2002. pp. 868-875.

J. W. Molson, J. Barker, M. Schirmer. “Modeling the impact of ethanol on the persistence of BTEX compounds in gasoline contaminated groundwater”. Report for the California MTBE Research Partnership, NWRI-00-01, Center for Groundwater Restoration and Protection, National Water Research Institute, California. 2000.

G. M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar, K. T. O’Reilly, P. J. J. Álvarez. “A comparison of benzene and toluene plume lengths for sites contaminated with regular vs. ethanol-amended gasolina”. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation. Vol. 23. 2003. pp. 48-53.

R. da Silva, R. Cataluna, E. W. de Menezes, D. Samios, C. M. S. Piatnicki. “Effect of additives on the antiknock properties and Reid vapor pressure of gasoline”. Fuel. Vol. 84. 2005. pp. 951-959.

A. Al-Hasan, “Effect of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission”. Energy Conversion and Management. Vol. 44. 2003. pp. 1547-1561.

European Commission, “Green paper on greenhouse gas emissions trading within the European Union”. COM (2000)87, Brussels (2000).

Comunicación personal con J. M. Henke, Kiel Institute for world economics, en noviembre de 2005.

K. R. Richards, C. Stokes. “A review of forest carbon sequestration cost studies: A dozen years of research”. Climatic Change. Vol. 63. 2004. pp. 1-48.

Australian Greenhouse Office. “National emissions trading: issuing the permits”. Discussion Paper 2, Canberra; 1999. En: Consultada el 29 de octubre de 2005.

E. Johnson, R. Heinen. “Carbon trading: time for industry involvement”. Environment International. Vol. 30.2004. pp. 279-288.

K. N. Rask, “Clean air and renewable fuels: the market for fuel ethanol in the US from 1984 to 1993”. Energy Economics. Vol 20. 1998. pp. 325-345.

T. G. Schmitz, A. Schmitz, J. L. Seale. “Brazil’s ethanol program: The case of hidden sugar subsidies”. International Sugar Journal. Vol. 105. 2003. pp. 254-265.

T. Koizumi, “The Brazilian ethanol programme: Impacts on world ethanol and sugar markets”. FAO Commodity and trade policy research working paper N.º 1. 2003. En: Consultada el 28 de octubre de 2005.

N. Wilson, “Ethanol industry cannot compete”, en The Australian 6 May. 2004. En: Consultada el 27 de octubre de 2005.

Federación Nacional de Biocombustibles. “ABC de los alcoholes carburantes”. En: Consultada el 30 de octubre de 2005.

K. L. Kadam, “Environmental benefits on a life cycle basis of using bagasse-derived ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in India”. Energy Policy. Vol. 30. 2002. pp. 371-384.

Kim, S. and B. E. Dale. “Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions”. Biomass & Bioenergy. Vol. 28. 2005. pp. 475-489.

H. Shapouri, J .A. Duffield, M. Wang. “The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited”. Transactions of the Asae. Vol. 46. 2003. pp. 959-968.

F. S. de Oliveira, S. G. Teixeira, M. C. U. Araujo, M. Korn. “Screening analysis to detect adulterations in Brazilian gasoline samples using distillation curves”. Fuel. Vol. 83. 2004. pp. 917-923.

M. Romero, “En el valle geográfico del río Cauca son 5 los ingenios que se le midieron a construir destilerías”. En Diario el Tiempo, 29 de octubre de 2005. Consultada el 29 de octubre de 2005.

“Etanol sustituirá 30% de exportaciones de azúcar”. En: Diario El País, 18 de junio de 2003. Consultada el 29 de octubre de 2005.



How to Cite

Ocampo Duque, W. A. (2006). Is biogasoline an environmentally-acceptable alternative in Colombia?. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (38), 7–19.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.