Pathogenesis of dental fluorosis: biochemical and cellular mechanisms


  • Gina Alejandra Castiblanco-Rubio Universidad El Bosque
  • Stefania Martignon-Biermann Universidad El Bosque
  • Jaime Eduardo Castellanos-Parra Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Wilson Alfonso Mejía-Naranjo Universidad El Bosque



Dental fluorosis, Amelogenesis, Amelogenin, Dental enamel proteins


The mechanisms involved in the development of dental fluorosis are still unknown. The development of in vivo and in vitro models using biologically relevant concentrations of fluoride for the emergence of fluorosis has allowed suggesting hypotheses that contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that produce this defect in enamel development, with high prevalence in Colombia. This topic review presents an update on the normal mechanisms of the formation of enamel and how they are affected by exposure to high concentrations of fluoride. This is a thorough review of the deleterious effects of fluoride on the cells and the extracellular matrix, especially during the maturation stage, resulting in a delay of the removal of the protein matrix of amelogenins, as well as the appearance of mottled enamel—a characteristic of dental fluorosis. Finally, it shows the perspectives of the study of this defect in enamel development from biochemistry and cellular and molecular biology

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Author Biographies

Gina Alejandra Castiblanco-Rubio, Universidad El Bosque

DMD, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Master’s Degree in Basic Biomedical Sciences, Universidad El Bosque. Associate Professor. UNICA - Unidad de Investigación en Caries. Universidad El Bosque.

Stefania Martignon-Biermann, Universidad El Bosque

DMD, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Pediatric Dentist, Universidad El Bosque. PhD in Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen. Professor, UNICA - Unidad de Investigación en Caries.

Jaime Eduardo Castellanos-Parra, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Odontólogo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Magíster en Farmacología y Ph.D en Ciencias –Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia. Profesor Titular Catedrático, Facultad de Odontología Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Wilson Alfonso Mejía-Naranjo, Universidad El Bosque

Microbiologist, Universidad de los Andes. Master’s Degree in Biochemistry and PhD in Sciences-Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Associate Professor. UNICA - Unidad de Investigación en Caries. Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia


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How to Cite

Castiblanco-Rubio, G. A. ., Martignon-Biermann, S., Castellanos-Parra, J. E., & Mejía-Naranjo, W. A. (2017). Pathogenesis of dental fluorosis: biochemical and cellular mechanisms. Revista Facultad De Odontología Universidad De Antioquia, 28(2), 408–421.