Effect of dietary addition of unprocessed, autoclaved or pre germinated fenugreek seeds on laying hens’ performance and egg quality
Background: previous studies have shown that fenugreek seed given at 6 g/hen/d in an attempt to reduce yolk cholesterol tended to reduce laying performance and that autoclaving and pre-germination improved its in vitro nutritional values. Objective: to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of unprocessed (UPFS), autoclaved (AFS) or pre-germinated (PGFS) fenugreek seeds on laying hens’ performance, egg physical characteristics and chemical composition. Methods: forty-eight 31 week-old Novogen white laying hens were divided into four groups and given 100 g/hen/d of a basal diet containing 0 (control) or 5.7 g of UPFS, AFS, or PGFS during nine weeks. Repeated and non-repeated data were analyzed using the Mixed and GLM procedures, respectively. Results: diet, week on diet and their interaction affected consumption (p<0.05). Laying rate was not affected (p>0.05) by week on diet but was reduced (p<0.05) by UPFS-diet. Moreover, UPFS-diet reduced (p<0.05) daily egg mass production. Feed conversion ratio was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatment or by week on diet. Egg, yolk, albumen and shell weights were affected (p<0.05) by week on diet but not by diet nor diet-week interaction. Dietary inclusion of fenugreek seeds did not affect total egg crude protein, yolk lipids, and triglyceride nor yolk cholesterol contents. Conclusion: unprocessed fenugreek reduced laying rate and daily egg mass production, but these effects were removed by autoclaving or pre-germination. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the impact of fenugreek seeds dietary supplementation on fatty acids profile and lipid peroxidation.
Abaza IM. Effect of using fenugreek, chamomile and radish as feed additives on productive performance and digestibility coefficients of laying hens. Egy Poultry Sci 2007;27:199-218.
Abdalla AA, Ahmed, Abaza IM, Aly OM, Hassan EY. Effect of using some medicinal plants and their mixtures on productive and reproductive performance of gimmizah strain 2-egg production period. Egy Poultry Sci 2011;31:641-654.
Abdouli H, Haj Ayed M, Belhouane S, Hcini E. Effect of feeding hens with fenugreek seeds on laying performance, egg quality characteristics, serum and egg yolk cholesterol. J New Sci 2014a; 3:1-9.
Abdouli H, Missaoui H, Jellali S, Tibaoui G, Tayachi L. Comparison of two fenugreek seed genotypes: bitterness value, secondary metabolites contents and biological activities. J New Sci 2014b; 7:19-27.
Abdouli H, Omri B, Tayachi L. Effect of whole fenugreek seed before and after its maceration in water on hens’ laying performance and egg cholesterol profile.J New Sci 2014c; 8:28-34.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. 10th ed. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1984.
Awadein N, Eid Y, Abd el-Ghany F. Effect of dietary supplementation with phytoestrogens sources before sexual maturity on productive performance of Mandarah hens. Egy Poultry Sci 2010; 30:829-846.
Bash E, Ulbricht C, Kuo G, Szapary P, Smith M. Therapeutic applications of fenugreek. Alternative Medec 2003; 8:20-27.
Belguith Hadriche O, Bouaziz M, Jamoussi K, El Feiki A, Sayadi S, Makni Ayed F . Lipid lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high cholesterol-fed rats. J Agri Food Chemis2010; 58:2116-2122.
Billaud C, Adrian J. Le fenugrec: Composition, valeur nutritionnelle et physiologique. Sci Ali 2001a; 21:3-26.
Burke V, Zhao Y, Lee AH, Hunter E, Spargo RM, Gracey M, Smith RM, Beillin LJ, Puddey IB. Health related behaviors as predictors of mortality and morbidity in Australian Aborigines. Prev Med2007; 44:135-142.
El-Kaiaty AM, Soliman AZ, Hassan MS. The physiological and immunological effects of some natural feed additives in layer hen diets. Egy Poultry Sci 2002; 22:175-183.
Elkin RR, Rogler JC. Reduction of the cholesterol content of eggs by the oral administration of Lovastatin to laying hens. J Agri and Food Sci 1990; 38:1635-41.
Gultemirina ML, Nieuwenhove CV, Chaia AP, Apelia MC. Physical and chemical characterization of eggs from Araucana hens of free ranged in Argentina. J Argen Chemis Soci 2009; 97:19-30.
Hager Theodorides AL, Goliomytis M, Delis S, Deligeorgis S. Effects of dietary supplementation with quercetin on broiler immunological characteristics. Anim Feed Sci Tech2014; 198:224-230.
Hargis PS. Modifying egg cholesterol in the domestic fowl: a review. World’s Poult Sci J 1988; 44:17-29.
Hemlata P, Pratima A. Effect of processing techniques on nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed flour. J Food Sci Technol 2015; 52:1054-1060.
Hooda S, Jood S. Effect of soaking and germination on nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum). J Food Biochem 2003; 27:165-176.
Hosam MS. Effect of dietary garlic or fenugreek on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Egy Poultry Sci 2007; 27:1207-1221.
Littell RC, Henry PR, Ammerman CB. Statistical analysis of repeated measures data using SAS Procedures. J Anim Sci 1989;76:1216-123.
Mabrouki S, Omri B, Abdouli H, Tayachi L. Chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of raw, autoclaved, and germinated fenugreek seeds. J New Sci 2015; 16:541-551.
Malleshi NG, Desikachar HSR. Studies on comparative malting characteristics of some tropical cereals and millets. J Inst Brew 1986; 92:174-176.
Mansour EH, El-Adawy TA. Nutritional potential and functional properties of heat-treated and germinated fenugreek seeds. LWT- Food Science and Technology 1994; 27:568-572.
Moustafa KK. Effect of using commercial and natural growth promoters on the performance of commercial laying hens. Egy Poultry Sci 2006; 26:941-965.
Narender T, Puri A, Shweta, Khaliq T, Saxena S, Bhatia G, Chandra R. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent. Bio Med Chemis Let 2006; 16:29329-29336.
Nascimento GAJ, Rodrigues PB, Freitas RTF, Bertechini AG, Lima RR, Pucci LEA. Prediction equations to estimate the energy values of plant origin concentrate feeds for poultry utilizing the meta-analysis. Rev Bras Zootec 2009; 38:1265-1271.
Nascimento GAJ. Prediction equations of the energetic values of poultry feedstuffs for utilizing the meta-analysis principle. PhD Thesis. Univ Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. 2007.
Osuntogun Bolanle A, Adewusi Steve RA, Ogundiwin Jonathan, Nwasike Charles C. Effect of cultivar, steeping, and malting on tannin, total polyphenol, and cyanide content of Nigerian Sorghum. Cereal Chem 1989; 66:87-89.
Pasin G, Smith GM, O’mahony M. Rapid determination of total cholesterol in egg yolk using commercial diagnostic cholesterol reagent. Food Chemis 1998; 61:255-259.
Pesti GM, Bakalli RI. On the effect of feeding cupric sulfate pentahydrate to laying hens on egg cholesterol content. Poult Sci 1998; 77:1540-1545.
Petit PR, Sauvaire YD, Hillaire -Buys DM, Leconte OM, Baissac YG, Ponsin GR, Ribes GR. Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol. Steroids 1995; 60:674-680.
Rahardja DP, Hakim MR, Pakiding W, Lestari VS. Hypocholesterolemic effect of garlic powder in laying hen: Low cholesterol egg. J Indonesian Trop Anim Agri 2010; 35:16-21.
Robert F, Panheleux M, Bebin K, Hamard A. Flavonoids stimulate feed intake of laying hens during heat stress. In: Actes des 10èmesJournées de la Recherche Avicole et Palmipèdes à Foie Gras. La Rochelle, France: JRAP 2013: 815-819.
SAS Institute. Inc. Version 6. SAS Institute, Cary, NC ; 1989.
Udayasekhara Rao P, Deosthale YG. In vitro availability of iron and zinc in white and coloured ragi (Eleusine coracana): role of tannin and phytate. Plant Foods Hum Nutri 1988; 38:35-41.
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch carbohydrates in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci1991; 74:3583-3597.
Weiss JF, Johnson RM, Naber EC. Effect of some dietary factors and drugs on cholesterol concentration in the egg and plasma of the hen. J Nutrition 1967; 91:119-128.
Copyright (c) 2016 Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors enable RCCP to reprint the material published in it.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions, and will allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.