Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) seropositivity in cattle herds from Ecuador
Background: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). This disease mainly affects cattle, causing severe economic losses to producers. Objective: To establish individual and herd seroprevalence and determine the risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity for dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador. Methods: A total of 2,668 serum samples from 386 herds were collected. A questionnaire, including variables related to cattle health, management and the environment was completed by each herd. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to determine seropositivity. A generalized estimating equation model (GEE) was developed to determine the factors associated with BLV seropositivity. Results: Individual seroprevalence of BLV infection in Ecuador was 17.3% (CI95% = 15.86-18.74%). Herd prevalence was 37.8% (CI95% = 33.0-42.6%), and intra-herd prevalence ranged between 12.5 and 100% (median: 37.5%). The risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity were artificial insemination (OR: 2,215; CI95% = 1.402-3.501), concrete floors (OR: 2.178; CI95% = 1.217-3.889), presence of wild ruminants (OR: 2.998; CI95% = 1.788-5.027), and sampling season (wet; OR: 1.996; CI95% = 1.140-3.497). Conclusions: Results indicate that BLV is widespread in cattle herds in Ecuador. In addition, the study suggests that a control program to fight BLV infection should focus on controlling the risk factors identified.
Acaite J, Tamosiunas V, Lukauskas K, Milius J, Pieskus J. The eradication experience of enzootic bovine leukosis from Lithuania. Prev Vet Med 2007; 82(1-2):83–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2007.05.010
Alfonso R, Almansa JE, Barrera JC. Serological prevalence and evaluation of the risk factors of bovine enzootic leukosis in the Bogotá Savannah and the Ubaté and Chiquinquirá Valleys. Colombia Rev Sci Tech 1998; 17(3):723–32. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.20506/rst.17.3.1126
Amoril JG, Samara SI, Tarabla HD, Camargos MF, Furtado CCV. Seroprevalence and risk factors for bovine leukemia virus infection in cattle of Goiás, Brazil Vet Immunol Immunop 2009; 128(1):333–334. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.263
Bech-Nielsen S, Piper CE, Ferrer JF. Natural mode of transmission of the bovine leukemia virus: role of bloodsucking insects. Am J Vet Res 1978; 39:1089–1092. PMID: 209707.
Carbonero A, Guzmán LT, Montaño K, Torralbo A, Arenas-Montes A, Saa LR Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador. Prev Vet Med 2015; 118(4):427–435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.01.007
Carbonero A, Saa LR, Jara DV, García- Bocanegra I, Arenas A, Borge C, Perea A, Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual-purpose cattle herd in Ecuador. Prev Vet Med 2011; 100(1):84–88. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.03.006
Chi J, Van Leeuwen JA, Weersink A, Keefe GP. Direct production losses and treatment costs from bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine leukosis virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum. Prev Vet Med 2002; 55(2):137–153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-5877(02)00094-6
Chomel BB, Carniciu ML, Kasten RW, Castelli PM, Work TM, Jessup DA. Antibody prevalence of eight ruminant infectious diseases in California mule and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus). J Wild Dis 1994; 30(1):51–59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-30.1.51
Divers TJ, Bartholomew RC, Galligan D, Little C. Evidence for transmission of bovine leukemia virus by rectal palpation in a commercial dairy herd. Prev Vet Med 1995; 23(3-4):133–141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5877(95)00464-8
FAO. Sistema de Información sobre la Diversidad de los Animales Domésticos (DAD-IS); [9 de Julio de 2020]. URL: https://www.fao.org/dad-is/browse-by-country-and-species/es/
Gillet N, Florins A, Boxus M, Burteau C, Nigro A, Vandermeers F, Balon H, Bouzar A, Defoiche J, Burny A, Reichert M, Kettmann R, Willems L. Mechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human. Retrovirology 2007; 4(1):18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-4-18
Gutierrez G, Alvarez I, Politzki R, Lomónaco M, Dus Santos MJ, Rondelli F, Fondevila, F, Trono K. Natural progression of bovine leukemia virus infection in Argentinean dairy cattle. Vet. Microbiol 2011; 151(3-4):255–263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.03.035
Hijmans RJ, Cameron SE, Parra JL, Jones PG, Jarvis A. Very high-resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 2005; 25(15):1965–1978. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1276
Hopkins SG, DiGiacomo RF. Natural transmission of bovine leukemia virus in dairy and beef cattle. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1997; 13(1):107–28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0749-0720(15)30367-4
Kobayashi S, Hidano A, Tsutsui T, Yamamoto T, Hayama Y, Nishida T, Muroga N, Konishi M, Kameyama K, Murakami K. Analysis of risk factors associated with bovine leukemia virus seropositivity within dairy and beef breeding farms in Japan: A nationwide survey. Res Vet Sci 2014; 96(1):47–53. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.11.014
Kobayashi S, Tsutsui, T, Yamamoto T, Hayama Y, Kameyama K, Konishi M. Risk factors associated with within-herd transmission of bovine leukemia virus on dairy farms in Japan. BMC Vet Res 2010; 6(1):1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-6-1
Konishi M, Ishizaki H, Kameyama K, Murakami K, Yamamoto T. The effectiveness of colostral antibodies for preventing bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in vitro. BMC Vet Res 2018; 14(1):419. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1724-5
LaDronka R, Ainsworth S, Wilkins M, Norby B, Byrem T, Bartlett P, Prevalence of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in US dairy cattle. Vet Med In 2018; 2018(11):1–8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5831278
Martin C, Pastoret P, Brochier B, Humblet M, Saegerman C. A survey of the transmition of infectous diseases/infections between wild and domestic ungulates in Europe. Vet Res 2011; 42(1):70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-42-70
Nuotio L, Rusanen H, Sihvonen L, Neuvonen E. Eradication of enzootic bovine leukosis from Finland. Prev Vet Med 2003; 59(1-2):43–49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-5877(03)00057-6
Rodriguez SM, Florins A, Gillet N, Brogniez A, Sánchez-Alcaraz MT, Boxus M, Boulanger F, Gutierrez G, Trono K, Alvarez I, Vagnoni L, Willems L. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for bovine leukemia virus: lessons for HTLV. Viruses 2011; 3(7):1210–1248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/v3071210
Ruggiero VJ, Norby B, Benitez OJ, Hutchinson H, Sporer KR, Droscha C, Swenson CL Bartlet PC. Controlling bovine leukemia virus in dairy herds by identifying and removing cows with the highest proviral load and lymphocyte counts. J Dairy Sci 2019; 102(10):9165–9175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-16186
Saa LR, Perea A, García-Bocanegra I, Arenas AJ, Jara DV, Ramos R, Carbonero A. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in non-vaccinated dairy and dual purpose cattle herds in Ecuador. Trop Anim Health Prod 2012; 44(3):645–649. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9948-4
Sargeant JM, Kelton DF, Martin SW, Mann ED. Association between farm management practices, productivity, and bovine leukemia virus infection in Ontario dairy herds. Prev Vet Med 1997; 31(3-4):211–221. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-5877(96)01140-3
Tirira D. Guía de campo de los mamíferos del Ecuador, 1st ed. Quito: Murciélago Blanco; 2007.
Trono K, Pérez-Filgueira D, Duffy S, Borca M, Carrillo C. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus in dairy cattle in Argentina: comparison of sensitivity and specificity of different detection methods. Vet Microbiol 2001; 83(3):235–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1135(01)00420-5
Yokoi K, Okazaki H, Inahara K, Hatama S. Prevalence of eight bovine viruses in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Vet Rec 2009; 165(25):754–755. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.165.25.754
Copyright (c) 2020 Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors enable RCCP to reprint the material published in it.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions, and will allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.