Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) seropositivity in cattle herds from Ecuador

  • Luis R. Saa Private Technical University of Loja
  • Lucía T. Guzmán Private Technical University of Loja
  • Natacha C. Fierro Private Technical University of Loja
  • Luz M. Castro Private Technical University of Loja
  • Fabián Reyes-Bueno Private Technical University of Loja
  • Alfonso Carbonero University of Córdoba
Keywords: BLV, bovine leukemia virus, cattle, cows, EBL, enzootic bovine leukosis, epidemiology, prevalence, risk factors, ruminant, seroprevalence, seropositivity, virus

Abstract

Background: Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL). This disease mainly affects cattle, causing severe economic losses to producers. Objective: To establish individual and herd seroprevalence and determine the risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity for dairy and dual-purpose cattle herds in Ecuador. Methods: A total of 2,668 serum samples from 386 herds were collected. A questionnaire, including variables related to cattle health, management and the environment was completed by each herd. A commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to determine seropositivity. A generalized estimating equation model (GEE) was developed to determine the factors associated with BLV seropositivity. Results: Individual seroprevalence of BLV infection in Ecuador was 17.3% (CI95% = 15.86-18.74%). Herd prevalence was 37.8% (CI95% = 33.0-42.6%), and intra-herd prevalence ranged between 12.5 and 100% (median: 37.5%). The risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity were artificial insemination (OR: 2,215; CI95% = 1.402-3.501), concrete floors (OR: 2.178; CI95% = 1.217-3.889), presence of wild ruminants (OR: 2.998; CI95% = 1.788-5.027), and sampling season (wet; OR: 1.996; CI95% = 1.140-3.497). Conclusions: Results indicate that BLV is widespread in cattle herds in Ecuador. In addition, the study suggests that a control program to fight BLV infection should focus on controlling the risk factors identified.

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Author Biographies

Luis R. Saa, Private Technical University of Loja

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4395-8660
Department of Biological Sciences, Agricultural Engineering Degree, Private Technical University of Loja, Ecuador.

Lucía T. Guzmán, Private Technical University of Loja

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6538-7208
Department of Biological Sciences, Agricultural Engineering Degree, Private Technical University of Loja, Ecuador.

Natacha C. Fierro, Private Technical University of Loja

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6309-4276
Department of Biological Sciences, Agricultural Engineering Degree, Private Technical University of Loja, Ecuador.

Luz M. Castro, Private Technical University of Loja

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2867-0252
Department of Biological Sciences, Agricultural Engineering Degree, Private Technical University of Loja, Ecuador.

Fabián Reyes-Bueno, Private Technical University of Loja

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5646-0263
Department of Biological Sciences, Agricultural Engineering Degree, Private Technical University of Loja, Ecuador.

Alfonso Carbonero, University of Córdoba

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0569-8714
Department of Animal Health, University of Córdoba, Campus of International Agrifood Excellence CEIA3, Spain.

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Published
2020-08-21
How to Cite
Saa L. R., Guzmán L. T., Fierro N. C., Castro L. M., Reyes-Bueno F., & Carbonero A. (2020). Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) seropositivity in cattle herds from Ecuador. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias, 34(3), 177-188. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.v34n3a01
Section
Original research articles