Los ritmos circadianos en cáncer y la cronoterapia

  • María Alejandra Molina-Rodríguez Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Veronica Akle-Álvarez Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
Palabras clave: Cáncer, Cronoterapia, Leucemia Linfocítica Aguda, Neoplasias de Colon, Neoplasias de Endometrio, Ritmos Circadianos

Resumen

Los ritmos circadianos, períodos fisiológicos de 24 horas aproximadamente, coordinan la actividad temporal de la mayoría, si no, de todos los seres vivos del planeta. Uno de los procesos más importantes del cuerpo, la proliferación celular, también está regulado por el reloj biológico cuya alteración puede tener repercusiones directas en el desarrollo del cáncer. El concepto de cronoterapia ha surgido a partir de la evidencia que tanto la proliferación de las células, como los mecanismos responsables de la farmacocinética y la farmacodinamia de los antineoplásicos ocurren a horas específicas del día. En esta revisión se presentan las generalidades del ciclo circadiano y su relación con el ciclo celular y el cáncer. Además, se expone evidencia del uso de la cronoterapia en pacientes con leucemia linfocítica aguda y en estudios clínicos de cáncer de colon, endometrio y ovario con asignación aleatoria. Se concluye que la hora de administración de la quimioterapia debe tener en cuenta los ritmos circadianos de los pacientes. Se enfatiza en la necesidad de hacer estudios clínicos enfocados en la quimioterapia cronomodulada, con el fin de aumentar la tolerancia y efectividad de los medicamentos con los protocolos existentes. 

Biografía del autor/a

María Alejandra Molina-Rodríguez, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
Estudiante de Medicina.
Veronica Akle-Álvarez, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
Profesora Asistente, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia. Bachelor in Science, Nova Southeastern University. Doctorado en Anatomía y Neurosciencia, Boston University.

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Publicado
2016-07-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión