Bebidas cafeínadas energizantes: efectos neurológicos y cardiovasculares

Palabras clave: Bebidas Energizantes, Cafeína, Cardiotoxicidad, Neurotoxicidad, Revisión, Taurina

Resumen

Las bebidas cafeínadas energizantes están compuestas esencialmente de cafeína, hidratos de carbono y suplementos dietarios. Aunque los fabricantes defienden que estas bebidas son seguras y muchos consumidores las perciben así, hay preocupación por la posibilidad de que se presenten eventos adversos al consumirlas. Esto nos motivó a hacer una revisión con énfasis en los riesgos cardiovasculares y neurológicos. Se encontraron más quejas de salud (cefalea, trastornos del sueño, irritación y cansancio) en los consumidores que en los no consumidores.Las consultas a urgencias por usar bebidas energizantes fueron más frecuentes cuando hubo coingestión de etanol y otras drogas. La principal causa de consulta cardiovascular a urgencias fue la arritmia y la neurológica, la convulsión. La evidencia encontrada fue de muy baja calidad, lo que limita establecer un nexo de causalidad entre su consumo y estos riesgos. Por otro lado, la interpretación de la toxicidad de estos preparados es complicada porque se deberían tener en cuenta variables como la dosis usada, las diferencias en la sensibilidad del consumidor, el hábito de consumo y el de fumar, la coingestión de otras sustancias, etc., para poder valorar el verdadero riesgo de estas bebidas. A pesar de esto, su consumo concomitante con etanol parece ser un factor de riesgo para toxicidad.

Biografía del autor/a

Clara Inés Manrique, Universidad CES, Medellín.
Médica Toxicóloga Clínica. Docente de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina.
Claudia Lucía Arroyave-Hoyos, Universidad CES, Medellín.
Médica Toxicóloga Clínica. Magister en Ciencias Clínicas. Docente de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina.
David Galvis-Pareja, Universidad CES, Medellín.
Químico Farmacéutico. PhD en Farmacología. Docente de farmacología. Programa de Farmacia.

Citas

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Publicado
2018-01-01
Sección
Artículos de revisión