Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: actualización

Autores/as

  • Carlos Hugo Zapata-Zapata Universidad de Antioquia
  • Edwing Franco-Dáger Universidad de Antioquia
  • Juan Marcos Solano-Atehortúa Universidad de Antioquia
  • Luisa Fernanda Ahunca-Velásquez Universidad de Antioquia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iatreia.v29n2a08

Palabras clave:

Diagnóstico, Enfermedad de la Neurona Motora, Epidemiología, Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral, Signos y Síntomas, Terapéutica

Resumen


La esclerosis lateral amiotrófica es una enfermedad neurodegenerativa que tiene consecuencias devastadoras para el paciente y su familia. Aún no existe claridad sobre su etiología, cerca del 10 % de los pacientes tienen patrón hereditario. La prevalencia mundial varía entre 2 y 11 casos por 100.000 habitantes; el rango de edad de presentación es de 58 a 63 años para los casos esporádicos, y de 47 a 52 años para los familiares, con una ligera predilección por el sexo masculino. Las manifestaciones clínicas incluyen signos de daño de las neuronas motoras superior e inferior tanto en las extremidades como en la musculatura bulbar, y en algunos pacientes hay deterioro cognitivo frontotemporal. El diagnóstico continúa siendo fundamentalmente clínico, apoyado por estudios neurofisiológicos; de estos, la electromiografía de aguja ha sido el más útil para el diagnóstico temprano. No existe tratamiento curativo y solo un medicamento, el riluzol, ha demostrado efectividad para retrasar el uso de ventilación mecánica y prolongar levemente la supervivencia. Por tanto, el tratamiento de estos pacientes se basa en medidas de soporte, especialmente en los aspectos de nutrición y ventilación, además de controlar los síntomas motores y no motores de la enfermedad.

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Biografía del autor/a

Carlos Hugo Zapata-Zapata, Universidad de Antioquia

Residente de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.

Edwing Franco-Dáger, Universidad de Antioquia

Residente de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.

Juan Marcos Solano-Atehortúa, Universidad de Antioquia

Profesor de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.

Luisa Fernanda Ahunca-Velásquez, Universidad de Antioquia

Profesora de Cátedra. Instituto de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Citas

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2016-03-08

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1.
Zapata-Zapata CH, Franco-Dáger E, Solano-Atehortúa JM, Ahunca-Velásquez LF. Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: actualización. Iatreia [Internet]. 8 de marzo de 2016 [citado 30 de noviembre de 2021];29(2):194-205. Disponible en: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/22383

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