Leucemia promielocítica aguda. Estado del arte

Palabras clave: Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda, Tretinoina, Trióxido de Arsénico

Resumen

La leucemia promielocítica aguda (LPA) es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) que se origina por una traslocación balanceada entre los cromosomas 15 y 17, involucra al gen que codifica para el receptor alfa del ácido retinoico (RARA) en el cromosoma 17 y el de la leucemia promielocítica (PML) en el cromosoma 15, lo que da origen a la traslocación t(15;17) PML/RARA. Dicho reordenamiento origina la proteína de fusión PML/RAR alfa, que bloquea la diferenciación de las células madre mieloides en el estadio de promielocito. La LPA afecta con mayor frecuencia a adultos jóvenes y conlleva un alto riesgo de mortalidad temprana, en especial por el desarrollo de una coagulopatía grave, que sin tratamiento es definitivamente fatal. El diagnóstico temprano, el tratamiento de soporte y la introducción de fármacos que promueven la diferenciación terminal de los promielocitos patológicos como la tretinoina, también conocida como ácido todo transretinoico (ATRA) o trióxido de arsénico (ATO), ha hecho que en la actualidad esta sea una enfermedad curable con altas tasas de remisión completa.

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Biografía del autor/a

Leonardo Mejía-Buriticá, Universidad de Antioquia

Residente de Hematología. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

José Domingo Torres-Hernández, Universidad de Antioquia

Profesor titular de Hematología. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Gonzalo de Jesús Vásquez, Universidad de Antioquia

Profesor titular de Genética Médica. Laboratorio Integrado de Medicina Especializada (LIME), Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

Citas

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Publicado
2020-09-08
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Mejía-Buriticá L, Torres-Hernández JD, Vásquez G de J. Leucemia promielocítica aguda. Estado del arte. Iatreia [Internet]. 8 de septiembre de 2020 [citado 17 de septiembre de 2021];34(1):42-3. Disponible en: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/342244
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