Themes and situations that cause embarrassment among participants in research


  • Juliana Dias Reis Pessalacia RN, Ph.D., Professor. Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, Divinópolis (MG),Brazil. email:
  • Cléa Regina de Oliveira Ribeiro Philosopher, Ph.D., Retired professor. University of São Paulo São Paulo, São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
  • Dinéia Massuia RN. Centro Universitário de Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto (SP), Brazil.


Bioethics; ethics, research; data collection.


Objective. To recognize the themes and situations that could make research participants feel embarrassed when questionnaires or interviews are used.

Methodoly. Quantitative and descriptive study, developed in 2008, involving a stratified sample of 1,1149 subjects who qualified the degree of shame in view of potentially embarrassing themes and situations.

Results. For the research participants, it is embarrassing to answer questions related to the following themes: betrayal (50%), physical violence (42%), sexual harassment (42%), psychological violence (40%) and death of loved ones (38%). The situations that most frequently causes embarrassment were: start of the survey or interview without requesting informed consent (83%); lack of information about the type of questions that would be addressed (79%), lack of guaranteed anonymity (78%), or use of images (66%) or a recorder (58%).

Conclusion. Themes and situations were identified that caused embarrassment among participants in research in which questionnaires or interviews were used, which should be considered in the ethical evaluation of studies.

= 58 veces | RESUMEN | RESUMO
= 8 veces| | PDF (ENGLISH)
= 33 veces| | HTML (ENGLISH)
= 324 veces| | HTML (PORTUGUÊS)
= 0 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


(1) Rovaletti ML. Ethical review in humanities and social sciences. Scientific research: between freedom and responsibility. Acta Bioeth. 2006; 12(2):243-50.

(2) Melo LMC. The comprehension of dental researchers about ethics in research involving in human beings [Dissertation]. São Paulo: Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo; 2002.

(3) Corbin J, Morse JM. The Unstructured Interactive Interview: Issues of Reciprocity and Risks When Dealing With Sensitive Topics. Qual Inq. 2003; 9(3):335-54.

(4) La Rocca S, Martínez G, Rascio A, Bajardi M. Biomedical Investigation and informed consent in vulnerable populations and individuals. Acta Bioeth. 2005; 11(2):169-81.

(5) Aran M, Peixoto Júnior CAP. Vulnerability and bare life: bioethics and biopolitics today. Rev Saude Publica. 2007; 4 (5):849-57.

(6) Evans M, Robling M, Rapport FM, Houston H, Kinnersley P, Wilkinson C. It doesn't cost anything just to ask, does it? The ethics of questionnaire-based research. J Med Ethics. 2005;28(41):41-4.

(7) Gouveia VV, Singelis TM, Guerra VM, Santos WS, Vasconcelos TC. Self-construal and embarrassment. Psico (Porto Alegre). 2005; 36(3):231-41.

(8) Ministério da Saúde. Conselho Nacional de Saúde. Resolução n° 196, de 10 de outubro de 1996. Aprova as diretrizes e normas regulamentadoras de pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Diário Oficial da União (1996 Oct 16).

(9) Jorge Dias HZ, Gauer GJC, Rubin R, Valério Dias A. Psichology and bioethics: dialogues. Psicol Clin. 2007; 19(1):125-35.

(10) Reis JD, Tavares BB. Ethical issues in nursing. Analysis of ethical issues in research involving human. Nursing (São Paulo). 2004; 78(7):46-50.

(11) Archanjo DR. A debate without struggle: a discussion of divorce in Congress (Brazil 1951-1977) [Dissertation]. Curitiba: Federal University of Paraná; 2008.

(12) Dresset J, Caballero M, Juliano Y, Prieto ET, Marques JA, Fernandes CE. Study of mechanisms and factors related to sexual abuse in female children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2001; 77 (5):413-9.

(13) Meneguel SN, Barbiani R, Steffen H, Wunder AP, Rosa MD, Rotermund J, et al. The impact of women's groups on gender vulnerability. Cad Saude Publica. 2003; 19(4):955-63.

(14) Meyer DEE, Klein C, Andrade SS. Sexuality, pleasures and vulnerabilities: educational implications. Educ Rev. 2007; 46:219-39.

(15) Andrade LS, Nóbrega-Therrien SM. The male sexuality and the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. DST J Bras. Doencas Sex Transm. 2005; 17(2):121-6.

(16) Niconielo AP, Monteiro CZ, Assumpção MT, Lopes-Júnior C, Silva RHA, Sales-Peres A. Speech-language pathology researches: the importance of bioethics. Arq cienc saude. 2005; 12(4):200-5.

(17) Pettengill MAM, Angelo M. Family vulnerability: concept development. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem. 2005; 13(6):982-8.

(18) Domingos B, Maluf MR. Experiences of loss and mourning among school-children aged 13 to 18. Psic Reflexao Critica. 2003; 16(3):577-89.

(19) Alves DCI, évora YDM. Ethical issues linked to the professional practice of nurses that are members of a hospital infection control commission. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem. 2002; 10(3):265-75.

(20) Pessalacia JDR, Ribeiro CRO. Vulnerability and risk in research with interviews. Nursing (São Paulo). 2007; 10(114):509-13.

(21) Pessalacia JDR. Risks, impairment and damages in Bioethics: a study on the risks in research with questionnaire and/or interview [Dissertation]. Ribeirão Preto (SP):University of São Paulo at Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing; 2006.

(22) Berardineli LMM, Santos MLSC. Ethical questions in the research of nursing subsidized for audiovisual method. Texto Contexto Enferm. 2005; 14(1):124-30.

(23) Guerriero ICZ, Dallari SG. The need for adequate ethical guidelines for qualitative health research. Ciênc. saúde coletiva. 2008; 13(2): 303-11.



How to Cite

Dias Reis Pessalacia, J., Regina de Oliveira Ribeiro, C., & Massuia, D. . (2013). Themes and situations that cause embarrassment among participants in research. Investigación Y Educación En Enfermería, 31(1). Retrieved from




Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.