Microstructural analysis of A356-T6 aluminum alloy on high tension connectors


  • Patricia Fernández Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana
  • Oscar Jaime Restrepo Universidad Nacional de Colombia


Aluminum alloys, A356-T6, high tension connector, microstructural analysis, mechanical properties


Some electrical companies have reported that during the service time, high tension connectors in energy transmission lines as well as power substations, there have been several cases where such elements exhibited an important decrease of their performance efficiency. Several studies have been carried out allowing the determination of changes in the mechanical and electrical properties of connectors caused by high levels of temperature reached for the circuits. In this paper we show the microstructural changes observed on an aluminum alloy A356-T6 (connectors manufacturing material) promoted by means thermal and electrical tests under simulated service conditions and their correlation to mechanical properties variations.

= 178 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 24 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Patricia Fernández, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

Grupo de Investigación sobre Nuevos Materiales

Oscar Jaime Restrepo, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Facultad de Minas


C. Saenz de Magarola, J. Beltran. “Manual del aluminio”.

Principios y procedimientos modernos de fabricación Barcelona. Reverté. 11a ed. 1959. pp. 653-

J. P. Sancho, J.J. Del Campo, K. G. Grjotheim. La Metalurgia

del aluminio. Dusseldorf. Aluminium. 1994.

pp. 1-12.

P. Fernández. Estudio de las propiedades mecánicas

de conectores de alta tensión bajo efectos de temperatura

elevada. Tesis de Maestría. Medellín. Universidad

Pontificia Bolivariana. 2005. pp. 17-140.

W. F. Smith. Fundamentos de la ciencia e ingeniería

de materiales. España. McGraw Hill. 3a ed. 1998. pp.


Lorunser-Leichtmetal. Connectors for substations.

Austria: Manual de Fabricante. pp. 1-27.

SIEIS. Morsetteria per alta tensione. connetori di potenza.

Italia: Manual de Fabricante. pp. 1-18.

K. P. Funaca. Conectores para subestaciones hasta

kV. Venezuela: Manual de Fabricante. pp. 1-48.

CEGERS. “Appareillage électrique. Racores Nema

kV. Manual de Fabricante. 1983. pp. 1-2.

SIMEL. Instrucciones de montaje y mantenimiento de

racores de alta y muy alta tensión. Francia: SIMEL,

Manual de Fabricante. 1988. pp. 1-18.

Simmel-Gamme Sinemex. Raccords haute tension.

Francia: Manual de Fabricante. 1990. pp. 1-80.

E. H. V. Burndy. Substation Products. Aluminum Alloys

Connectors. Manual de Fabricante. 1994. pp. 1-62.

Edelca Electrificadora Del Caroni C.A. Especificaciones

Técnicas Generales de Subestaciones. Venezuela.

pp. 1-26.

G. Di Troia, K. Woo, W. Zahlman. Connector theory

and application-a guide to connection design and specification.

ra. Ed. s.l.: FCI. Electrical. 1998. pp. 1-25.


asp. Consultada noviembre 21 de 2003.

C. C. Menzemer, L. Fei, T. S. Srivatsan. Design criteria

for bolted connection elements in aluminum alloy

Journal of Mechanical Design. Vol.121. 1999.

pp. 348.

J. D. Sprecher et al. Wedge-connector technology in

power utility applications. AMP. Journal of Technology.

Vol. 5. 1996. pp. 4-13.

Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook. New

York. The Aluminum association, 1989. 3a ed. Caps.

-3, 5-6, 13.

D. Beeman. Industrial Power Systems Handbook. New

York: Mc Graw Hill. 1955. pp. 180-190.

Y. Mizuno. “Assesment of thermal deterioration of

transmission line conductor by probabilistic method”.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery.Vol. 13. 1998.

pp. 266-271.

G. P. Luo, J. G. Lu, J. G. Zhang. “Failure analysis on

bolt-type power connector’s application”. IEEE. 1999.

pp. 77-86.

J. Steinsleger. El tango del apagón en Argentina. Y

todo a media luz. Masiosare, 1999. pp. 1-4. [en línea].


mas-media.html. Consultada marzo 18 de 2003.

Interconexión Eléctrica S.A. E.S.P. Dirección Planeación,

Evaluación y Desarrollo del Mantenimiento: Informe

anual de termografía. Medellín: ISA. 2000. pp.


Interconexión Eléctrica S.A. E.S.P. Dirección Planeación,

Evaluación y Desarrollo del Mantenimiento: Manual

de Mantenimiento de Conectores de Alta tensión.

Medellín: ISA. 2003.

R. Bergmann. Model to assess the reliability of electrical

joints. IEEE. 1996. pp. 180-188.

M. Braunovic. “Effect of current cycling on contact

resistance, force, and temperature of bolted aluminumto-

aluminum connectors of high ampacity”. IEEE

Transactions on Components, Hybrids and Manufacturing

Technology. Vol. CHMT-4. 1981. pp. 57-69.

C. Lahaye. “Influence of some parameters in the performances

and stability of the electrical characteristics

of contacts made of aluminum alloy in the industry”.

Proceedings Conferences on Electrical Contacts.

Francia. pp. 499-508.

B. R. Lyon Jr., G. L. Orlove, D. L. Peters. The Relationship

between current load and temperature for quasisteady

state and transient conditions. North Billerica:

Infrared Training Center. 2000. pp. 1-9.

A. Öberg, K. E. Olsson, A. Bohlin. “Testing of power

connectors – influence of testing parameters”. Proceedings

Conferences on Electrical Contacts. 1990. pp.


V. Massardier, T. Epicier, P. Merle. “Correlation between

the microstructural evolution of a 6061 aluminium

alloy and the evolution of its thermoelectric

power”. Acta Materialia. Vol. 48. 2000. pp. 2911-

P. Fernández, J. G. Maya. “Efecto de la temperatura

elevada en las propiedades mecánicas de los conectores

de alta tensión”. Revista Dyna. Universidad Nacional-

Medellín. 2004. pp. 37-43.

ASM Handbook. Properties and Selection: Non ferrous

alloys and special purpose. New York. ASM

Internacional. 9a. Ed. Vol. 2. 1985. pp. 1-215.

National Electric Manufacturer´s Association. Electric

Power Connectors for substations. Washington.

NEMA. (Norma NEMA CC1-1984). 1984. pp. 1-

American National Standars Institute. Electric connectors:

connectors for use between aluminum-to-aluminum

or aluminum-to-copper bare overhead conductors.

New York. ANSI. (Norma: ANSI C119.4-1991).

pp. 1-10.

ANCE. Industria Eléctrica–Conectores de aluminio

tipo mecánico: Especificaciones y métodos de prueba.

México. ANCE. (Norma NMX-J-383-1994-ANCE).

pp. 1-33.

Canadian Standards Association. Electric power connectors

for use in overhead line conductors. Montreal.

CSA. (Norma: CSA C 57-1966). 1966. pp. 1-25.

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación.

Conectores para uso entre conductores aéreos de

aluminio o aluminio-cobre. Bogotá. ICONTEC. (Norma

NTC 2244). 1987. pp.1-21.

Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certificación.

Conectores Eléctricos de Potencia para subestaciones.

Bogotá:.ICONTEC. (Norma NTC 2155).


B. Herrman, N. Stein, G. Kiebling. “Short circuit

effects in HV substations with strained conductors

systematic full scale test and a simple calculations methods”.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol. 4.

pp. 1021-1028.

P. Fernández M., V. Martínez, J. Cruz. “Estudio del

comportamiento mecánico y microestructural de

la aleación de aluminio A356-T6 sometida a altas

temperaturas”. Memorias III Congreso Internacional

de Materiales Simposio Materia. VIII Congreso

Nacional de Corrosión y Protección. 2005. pp.


E. M. Van Lanker. Metallurgy of aluminium alloys.

New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1967. pp. 488.

ASM Handbook. Heat Treating. New York. ASM International.

Vol. 4. pp. 841-879.

R. M. Brick, A. Phillips. Metallurgical Engineering

Series. New York: Mc Graw Hill. 2da ed. 1949. pp.


K. M. Entwistle. “Precipitation in aluminium alloys”.

Metals and Materials. Vol. 8. 1974. pp.302-303.

L. Pedersen, L. Arnberg. “The effect of solution heat

treatment and quenching rates on mechanical properties

and microstructures in AlSiMg foundry alloys”.

Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. Warrendale,

EEUU. Vol. 32A. 2001. pp. 525-532.

M. D. Dighe, A. M. Gokhale, M. Horstemeyer. “Effect

of loading condition and stress state on damage evolution

of silicon particles in an Al-Si-Mg base cast

alloy”. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A.

Warrendale. EEUU. Vol. 33A. 2002. pp. 555-565.

C. H. Cáceres, C. J. Davidson, J. R. Griffiths and Q.

G. Wang. “The effect of Mg on the microstructure and

mechanical behavior of Al-Si-Mg casting alloys”. Metallurgical

and Materials Transactions A. Warrendale,

EEUU. Vol. 30A. 1999. pp. 2611-2617.

H. Sehitoglu, X. Qing, T. Smith, H. Maier and J. A.

Allison. “Stress-strain response of a cast 319-T6 aluminum

under thermomechanical loading”. Metallurgical

and Materials Transactions A. Warrendale, EEUU.

Vol. 31A. 2000. pp. 139-150.

T. Smith, H. Maier, H. Sehitoglu, E. Fleury and J. Allison.

“Modeling high temperature stress-strain behavior

of cast aluminum alloys”. Metallurgical and Materials

Transactions A. Warrendale, EEUU. Vol. 30A. 1999.

pp. 133-146.

H. Oikawa, N. Matsumo, S. Karashima. “Creep mechanism

of Al-Mg alloys at high temperatures”. Metal

Science. Vol. 9. 1975. pp. 209-212.

M. P. Groover. Fundamentos de manufactura moderna:

materiales, procesos y sistemas. México: Prentice

Hall. 1997. pp. 131-155.

V. L. Antunes Da Silveira, S. Lima Porciúncula, W.

Arno Manheimer. “Aspectos metalúrgicos do comportamiento

de fiacao eléctrica em ligas de aluminio com revestimento metálico”. Metalurgia–ABM. Sao Paulo.

Vol. 37. 1981. pp. 645-650.

R. Ayres. “Enhanced ductility in an Aluminum-4 pct

Magnesium alloy at elevated temperature”. Metallurgical

Transactions A. Warrendale. EEUU. Vol. 8A.

pp. 487-492.

H. Oikawa, J. Kariya, S. Karashima. “Some activation

parameters in steady-state creep of aluminium-magnesium

alloys at high temperatures”. Metal Science.

Vol. 8. 1974. pp. 106-111.

K. Adomah, Y. Mizuno, K. Naito. “Probabilistic

assessment of the reduction in tensile strength of an

overhead transmission line’s conductor with reference

to climatic data”. IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery. Vol. 15. 2000. pp. 1221-1224.

F. Jakl, A. Jakl. “Effect of elevated temperatures on mechanical

properties of overhead conductors under steady

state and short-circuits conditions”. IEEE Transactions

on Power Delivery. Vol. 15. 2000. pp. 242-246.

G. D. Troia. “Effects of high temperature operation

on overhead transmission full-tension joints and conductors”.

FCI. Electrical. 2000. pp. 1-7. http://www.


of_High_Temp_On_Overhead.pdf. Consultada el 21

de noviembre de 2003.

W. Smith. “The effect of reversion treatments on precipitation

mechanisms in an Al-1.35 at pct Mg2Si alloy” Metallurgical

Transactions. Vol. 4. 1973. pp. 2435-2440.

A. M. Gokhale, M. D. Dighe, M. Horstemeyer. “Effect

of temperature on silicon particle damage in A356

alloy”. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A.

Vol. 29A. 1998. pp. 905-907.



How to Cite

Fernández, P., & Restrepo , O. J. (2014). Microstructural analysis of A356-T6 aluminum alloy on high tension connectors. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (44), 20–29. Retrieved from https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ingenieria/article/view/18465