Effect of the functionalization of silica nanoparticles as a reinforcing agent on dental composite materials

Keywords: Composite material, functionalization, silica, UDMA, EGDMA, particle size, dental materials

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effect of silica nanoparticle aggregation
state on the reflectance and crystallinity of dental composite materials. Two types of silica nanoparticles (ca. 10 nm): Aerosil 200 non funcionalized and Aerosil DT4 funcionalized with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. Nanoparticles were dispersed in a monomer mix composed by Urethane Dimethacrylate (UDMA) and Ethylene glycol Dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in a 80:20 mass ratio. The particle size of silica and their aggregation state were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing that the Aerosil DT4 has dense aggregates with sizes higher than 1 µm; on the other hand the Aerosil
200 showed a particle gel-like structure. The functionalization degree of
the Aerosil DT4 was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),
obtaining a value of 7.57% w/w. The composite materials were evaluated by Differencial Scanning Calorimerty (DSC) to determine their crystallinity. The composite material reinforced by Aerosil DT4 showed lower cristallinity than the system with Aerosil 200 due to higher interaction of the polymeric matrix with the funcionalized surface of the Aerosil DT4. The effect of the aggregation state of silica nanoparticles on the optical properties of the composite material was determined by reflectance analysis. The Aerosil 200 sample showed a lower degree of nanoparticle aggregation and higher reflectance than the system with Aerosil DT4. The functionalization of  the Aerosil DT4 induced nanoparticle aggregation diminishing the optical properties of the composite material.


|Abstract
= 650 veces | PDF
= 648 veces|

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Henry Alberto Rodríguez-Quirós, NEW STETIC S.A.

Estudiante de Doctorado en Ciencias Químicas de la Universidad de Antioquia. Perteneciente al Grupo de Coloides de la Universidad de Antioquia.

Coordinador de Investigación y Gestión Tecnológica. Perteneciente al grupo de investigación GINEWS

Herley Fernando Casanova-Yepes, Universidad de Antioquia
Director del Grupo de Coloides de la Universidad de Antioquia

References

K. Anusavice. Phillips ciencia de los materiales dentales. 10th ed. Ed. McGraw-Hill Interamericana Editores, S.A. de C.V. México. 1998. pp. 283-311.

N. Mozner, U. Salz. “Composites for dental restoratives”. W. Shalaby, U. Salz (editors). Polymers for Dental and Orthopedic applications. 1st ed. Ed. Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, USA. 2007. pp. 13-69.

C. Pfeifer, Z. Shelton, R. Braga, D. Windmoller, J. Machado, J. Stansbury. “Characterization of dimethacrylate polymeric networks: A study of the crosslinked structure formed by monomers used in dental composites”. European Polymer Journal. Vol. 47. 2011. pp. 162-170.

J. Stansbury. “Dimethacrylate network formation and polymer property evaluation as determined by the selection of monomers and curing conditions”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 28. 2012. pp. 13-22.

M. Atai, A. Pahlavan, N. Moin. “Nano-porous thermally sintered nano silica as novel fillers for dental composites”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 28. 2012. pp. 133-145.

L. Valente, S. Peralta, F. Ogliari, L. Cavalcante, R. Moraes. “Comparative evaluation of dental composites based on micro-and submicron-sized monomodal glass filler particles”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 29. 2013. pp. 1182-1187.

Y. Xia, F. Zhang, H. Xie, N. Gu. “Nanoparticlereinforced resin-based dental composites”. Journal of Dentistry. Vol. 36. 2008. pp. 450-455.

S. Mitra, D. Wu, B. Holmes. “An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials”. The Journal of the American Dental Association. Vol. 134. 2003. pp. 1382-1390.

J. Fu, W. Liu, Z. Hao, X. Wu, J. Yin, A. Panjiyar, et al. “Characterization of a Low Shrinkage Dental Composite Containing Bismethylene Spiroorthocarbonate Expanding Monomer”. Int. J. Mol. Sci. Vol. 15. 2014. pp. 2400-2412.

S. Pereira, R. Osorio, M. Toledano, M. Cabrerizo, T. Nunes, S. Kalachandra. “Novel light-cured resins and composites with improved physicochemical properties”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 23. 2007. pp. 1189-1198.

J. Antonucci, S. Dickens, B. Fowler, H. Xu, W. McDonough. “Chemistry of Silanes: Interfaces in Dental Polymers and Composites”. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. Vol. 110. 2005. pp. 541-558.

J. Matilina, L. Lassila, M. Özcan, A. Yli, P. Vallita. “An introduction to silanes and their clinical applications in Dentistry”. Int. J. Prosthodont. Vol. 17. 2004. pp. 155- 164.

T. Chen, G. Braner. “Solvent effects on bonding organo-silane to silica surfaces”. J. Dent. Res. Vol. 61. 1982. pp. 1439-1443.

I. Sideridou, M. Karabela. “Effect of the amount of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on physical properties of dental resin nanocomposites”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 25. 2009. pp. 1315-1324.

M. Karabela, I. Sideridou. “Effect of the structure of silane coupling agent on sorption characteristics of solvents by dental resin-nanocomposites”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 24. 2008. pp. 1631-1639.

T. Nihei, A. Dabanoglu, T. Teranaka, S. Kurata, K. Ohashi, Y. Kondo, et al. “Three-body-wear resistance of the experimental composite containing filler treated with hydrophobic silane coupling agents”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 24. 2008. pp. 760-764.

K. Wilson, J. Antonucci. “Structure-property relationships in thermoset dymethacrylate nanocomposites”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 22. 2006. pp. 995- 1001.

Q. Wan, J. Sheffield, J. McCool, G. Barau. “Light curable dental composites designed with colloidal crystal reinforcement”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 24. 2008. pp. 1694-1701.

S. Beun, O. Bailly, A. Dubin, J. Vreven, J. Devaux, G. Leloup. “Rheological properties of experimental Bis-GMA/TEGDMA flowable resin composites with various macrofiller/microfiller ratio”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 25. 2009. pp. 198-205.

S. Bean, T. Glorieux, J. Devaux, J. Vreven, G. Leloup. “Characterization of nanofilled compared universal and microfilled composites”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 23. 2007. pp. 51-59.

A. Curtis, W. Palin, G. Fleming, A. Shortall, P. Marques. “The mechanical properties of nanofilled resin-based composites: Characterizing discrete filler particles and agglomerates using micromanipulation technique”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 25. 2009. pp. 180-187.

M. Chen, C. Chen, S. Hsu, S. Sun, W. Su. “Low shrinkage light curable nanocomposite for dental restorative material”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 22. 2006. pp. 138-145.

A. Dorigato, Y. Dzenis, A. Pegoretti. “Filler aggregation as a reinforcement mechanism in polymer nanocomposites”. Mechanics of Materials. Vol. 61. 2013. pp. 79-90.

D. Strat, F. Dalmas, S. Randriamahefa, J. Jestin, V. Wintenys. “Mechanical reinforcement in model elastomer nanocomposites with tuned microstructure and ineractions”. Polymer. Vol. 54. 2013. pp. 1466- 1479.

C. DeArmitt. “Functional Fillers for Plastics”. M. Kutz (editor). Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook. 1st ed. Ed. Elsevier Inc. Waltham, USA. 2011. pp. 455- 468.

G. Kellum. “Determination of water, silanol and strained siloxane on silica surfaces”. Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 39. 1967. pp. 341-345.

H. Bergna. “Colloid Chemistry of Silica: An Overview”. H. Bergna, W. Roberts (editors). Colloidal Silica Fundamentals and Applications. 1st ed. Ed. Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, USA. 2006. pp. 9-37.

L. Zhuravlev. “The surface chemistry of amorphous silica. Zhuravlev model”. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. Vol. 173. 2000. pp. 1-38.

J. Lee, G. Um, I. Lee. “Rheological properties of resin composites according to variations in monomer and filler composition”. Dent. Mat. Vol. 22. 2006. pp. 515- 526.

T. Naganuma, Y. Kagawa. “Effect of particle size on the optically transparent nano meter-order glass particledispersed epoxy matrix composites”. Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 62. 2002. pp. 1187-1189.

L. Zhou, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, Z. Zhang. “Homogeneous nanoparticle dispersion prepared with impurity-free dispersant by the ball mill technique”. Particuology. Vol. 11. 2013. pp. 441-447.

X. Zhang, Y. Li, G. Lv, Y. Zuo, Y. Mu. “Thermal and crystallization studies of nano-hidroxyapatite reinforced polyamide 66 biocomposites”. Polymer degradation and stability. Vol. 91. 2006. pp. 1202- 1207.

Published
2015-05-19