A hybrid gateway discovery algorithm for supporting QoS communications in heterogeneous networks
Keywords:Mobile ad hoc networks, heterogeneous networks, gateway discovery, routing protocol, routing protocol evaluation
In most practical applications, ad hoc mobile devices demand the access to wired hosts located beyond the limits of the mobile ad hoc network, forming a heterogeneous wired-cum-wireless network. This interconnection requires a network device known as gateway. The gateway functions as a bridge between the ad hoc environment and infrastructure-based networks, as Internet. We propose in this paper an algorithm for the discovery and selection of gateways and its integration in a routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. Our proposed algorithm is based on an adaptive hybrid strategy where the proactive and reactive methods are combined. Consequently, gateways maintain routing information sending advertisement messages to mobile nodes inside a limited range (proactive area). Those nodes located outside that area must execute a reactive gateway discovery process. The size of the proactive area and the frequency of the control messages are dynamically adapted. The simulation results show that our approach achieves better results in terms of packet loss and delay without increasing the routing overhead.
C. Perkins, E. Belding and S. Das, “Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”, Network Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF®), RFC 3561, Jul. 2003.
C. Perkins, S. Ratliff and J. Dowdell, “Dynamic MANET On-demand (AODVv2) Routing draft-ietf-manetaodvv2-05”, Mobile Ad hoc Networks Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF®), Oct. 27, 2014.
T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)”, Network Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF®), RFC 3626, Oct. 2003.
R. Zaman, K. Rahman and A. Reddy, “A Survey of Adaptive Gateway Discovery Mechanisms in Heterogeneous Networks”, International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 34-42, 2013.
S. Ding, “A survey on integrating MANETs with the Internet: Challenges and designs”, Computer Communications, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 3537-3551, 2008.
S. Asif and M. Kabir, “Hybrid Scheme for Discovering and Selecting Internet Gateway in Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 83-101, 2011.
G. Zhang and J. Hu, “Adaptive Distributed Gateway Discovery with Swarm Intelligence in Hybrid Wireless Networks”, International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 137- 150, 2014.
A. Hamidian, “Supporting Internet access and quality of service in distributed wireless ad hoc networks”, Ph.D. dissertation, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 2009.
Y. He, Y. Ahn and J. Choi, “Gateway-Based Modified AODV for MANET and Internet Interconnection”, in 4th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP), Coimbatore, India, 2012, pp. 179-192.
University of Southern California, The Network Simulator (NS-2). [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns. Accessed on: Feb. 6, 2015.
R. Wakikawa, J. Malinen, C. Perkins, A. Nilsson and A. Tuominen, “Global connectivity for IPv6 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks draft-wakikawa-manet-globalv6-05.txt”, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF®), Mar. 2006.
S. Adédjouma, P. Chokki and T. Dagba, “An Extended AODV Protocol to Support Mobility in Hybrid Networks”, International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 500-505, 2013.
A. Yuste, A. Triviño, F. Trujillo and E. Casilari, “Improved Scheme for Adaptive Gateway Discovery in Hybrid MANET”, in IEEE 30th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), Genova, Italy, 2010, pp. 270-275.
A. Triviño, B. Ruiz, E. Casilari and A. Yuste, “Study on the need for adaptive gateway discovery in MANETs”, in International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing: Connecting the World Wirelessly (IWCMC ‘09), Leipzig, Germany, 2009, pp. 1091-1095.
A. Yuste, A. Triviño and E. Casilari, “Type-2 fuzzy decision support system to optimise MANET integration into infrastructure-based wireless systems”, Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 2552-2567, 2013.
Y. Yan, L. Ci, Z. Wang, and W. He, “QoS-based gateway selection in MANET with Internet connectivity”, in 15th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), Pyeongchang, South Korea, 2013, pp. 195-199.
D. Patel and R. Kumar, “A review of internet gateway discovery approaches for mobile adhoc networks”, International Journal of Computers & Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 495-508, 2013.
W. Castellanos, P. Acelas, P. Arce and J. Guerri, “Evaluation of a QoS-Aware Protocol with Adaptive Feedback Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, in 6th International ICST Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness (ICST QShine), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, 2009, pp. 120-127.
W. Castellanos, P. Arce, P. Acelas and J. Guerri, “Route Recovery Algorithm for QoS-Aware Routing in MANETs”, in 3rd International ICST Conference, MOBILIGHT, Bilbao, Spain, 2011, pp. 81-93.
S. Majumder and Asaduzzaman, “A hybrid gateway discovery method for mobile ad hoc networks”, in 3rd International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2014, pp. 1-6.
F. Trujillo, A. Triviño, E. Casilari, A. Diaz and A. Yuste, “A stability approach to improve MANET-internet connection”, in 23rd International Symposium on Computer and Information Sciences (ISCIS ’08), Istanbul, Turkey, 2008, pp. 1-6.
T. Narten, W. Simpson, E. Nordmark and H. Soliman, “Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)”, Network Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF®), Sep. 2007.
How to Cite
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. The material published in the journal can be distributed, copied and exhibited by third parties if the respective credits are given to the journal. No commercial benefit can be obtained and derivative works must be under the same license terms as the original work.