Descripción general del diseño de pavimentos asfálticos para calles y carreteras

Autores/as

  • Luis R. Vásquez-Varela Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Francisco J. García-Orozco Universidad Nacional de Colombia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.redin.20200367

Palabras clave:

pavimento asfáltico, diseño de pavimentos, pavimento perpetuo, diseño incremental, MEPDG

Resumen

Los pavimentos constituyen un problema geotécnico pues se construyen sobre el terreno con materiales obtenidos del mismo: no tratados, como suelos y rocas, y procesados como los aglomerantes hidráulicos y bituminosos; en consecuencia, el marco de referencia geotécnico es útil para describir sus elementos. El diseño de pavimentos asfálticos evolucionó de procedimientos empíricos a mecanicistas-empíricos (M-E) durante el siglo veinte. El método mecanicista-empírico, basado en la teoría de capas elásticas, se convirtió en una práctica con la publicación de los procedimientos de la Shell Oil, el Asphalt Institute y el LCPC, entre otros. Desde su origen, el procedimiento M-E consideró el diseño incremental del pavimento, sin embargo, solo hasta comienzos del siglo veintiuno se dispuso de la potencia computacional necesaria. La MEPDG representa el estado del arte del diseño incremental con avances e inconvenientes significativos, estos últimos relacionados con las actividades de calibración requeridas para el adecuado análisis y diseño según la subrasante, clima y materiales del sitio y para un nivel requerido de confiabilidad. Los pavimentos perpetuos son un subconjunto diseñado con el método M-E y con una trayectoria exitosa para las condiciones en las cuales son apropiados. Ningún método de diseño, desde la aproximación empírica más sencilla hasta el más complejo método mecanicista incremental, es adecuado sin un conocimiento satisfactorio de los factores de diseño y la calibración de los modelos de comportamiento para cada modo de daño.

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Biografía del autor/a

Luis R. Vásquez-Varela, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Docente e investigador.

Francisco J. García-Orozco, Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Docente investigador

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Publicado

2021-03-04

Cómo citar

Vásquez-Varela, L. R., & García-Orozco, F. J. (2021). Descripción general del diseño de pavimentos asfálticos para calles y carreteras. Revista Facultad De Ingeniería Universidad De Antioquia, (98), 10–26. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.redin.20200367

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