Potential applications of portland cement on bone tissue engineering. Phase I: biocompatibility studies–calcium hydroxide effects
There is an increasing and unfulfilled demand of bone substitutes with optimal mechanical and biological properties. Based on the excellent mechanical and structural properties of Portland Cement, a biocompatibility exploratory study of this material was proposed. Plain substrates were fabricated with Gray Type I Portland Cement under different conditions (Neutralized-SN, Carbonated-SC, not neutralized-SnN), which were then used to conduct a Direct Contact Assay with CHO and HOS cells for 24h. The substrates were characterized by SEM, and phenolphthalein assays to determine the pH value, while the cell culture assays were evaluated by Phase Contrast Microscopy. The results show that SnN had the highest pH value (> 12,0), followed by SN, and finally by SC (≈ 7,4); it was also observed that the cytotoxicity of the substrates diminished in proportion to the pH value. It is proposed that the cytotoxicity of Portland Cement is caused by the Ca(OH)2 formed during the hydration of this material. Thus, by lowering the amount of Ca(OH)2, either by carbonation or neutralization, the biocompatibility of the material is positively affected.
J. R. Jones, L. L. Hench. “Regeneration of trabecular bone using porous ceramics”. Cur Op Sol State Mat Sci. Vol. 7. 2003. pp. 301-307.
B. D. Boyan, C. H. Lohmann, J. Romero, Z. Schwartz. “Bone and cartilage tissue engineering”. Clin Plast Surg. Vol. 26. 1999. pp. 629-645.
L. G. Griffith, G. Naughton. “Tissue engineering-current challenges and expanding opportunities”. Science. Vol. 8. 2002. pp. 1009-1014. Figura 4 Fotografía (30X) de una matriz porosa en cemento pórtland blanco tipo I, fabricada con el proceso de Particulate Leaching (la barra blanca indica una medida de 1 mm)
D. W. Jackson, T. M. Simon. “Tissue engineering principles in orthopaedic surgery”. En: Clin Orthop. Vol. 367. 1999. pp. 531-545.
S. Vogt, Y. Larcher, B. Wilke, M. Schnabelrauch. “Fabrication of highly porous scaffold materials based on functionalized oligolactides and preliminary results on their use in bone tissue engineering”. Eur Cells Mat. Vol. 4. 2002. pp. 30-38.
O. Schultz, M. Sittinger, T. Haeupl, G. R. Burmester. “Emerging strategies of bone and joint repair”. Arthritis Res. Vol. 2. 2000. pp. 433–436.
F. P. Luyten, F. Dell’Accio, C. de Bari. “Skeletal tissue engineering: opportunities and challenges”. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Vol. 15. 2001. pp. 759-769.
L. L. Hench, J. M. Polak. “Third-generation biomedical materials”. Science. Vol. 8. 2002. pp. 1007-1014.
K. J. Burg, S. Porter, J. F. Kellam. “Biomaterial developments for bone tissue engineering”. Biomaterials. Vol. 21. 2000. pp. 2347-2359.
C. M. Agrawal, K. A. Athanasiou. “Technique to control pH in vicinity of biodegrading PLA-PGA implants”. J Biomed Mater Res. Vol. 38.1997. pp. 105-14.
J. C. Middleton, A. J. Tipton. “Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices”. Biomaterials. Vol. 21. 2000. pp. 2335-2346.
R. di Toro, V. Betti, S. Spampinato. “Biocompatibility and integrin-mediated adhesion of human osteoblasts to poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) copolymers”. Eur J Pharm Sci. Vol. 21. 2004. pp. 161-169.
D. C. Tancred, A. J. Carr, B. A. McCormack. “Development of a new synthetic bone graft”. J Mater Sci Mater Med. Vol. 9.1998. pp. 819-823.
K. Hae-Won, L. Seung-Yong, B. Chang-Jun, N. YoonJung, K. Hyoun-Ee, K. Hyun-Man, K. Jea Seung. “Porous ZrO 2 bone scaffold coated with hydroxyapatite with fluorapatite intermediate layer”. Biomaterials. Vol. 24. 2003. pp. 3277-3284.
C. Bargholz. “Perforation repair with mineral trioxide aggregate: a modified matrix concept”. Int Endod J. Vol. 38. 2005. pp. 59-69.
QLC Group of Companies. The hardening of Portland Cement. QLC Group Technical note 1999. http://www. ach.com.au/qcl/pdf_files/Cem_hard.pdf. Consultado Marzo 2005.
U. R. Funteas, J. A. Wallace, E. W. Fochtman. “A comparative analysis of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland cement”. Aust Endod J. Vol. 29. 2003. pp. 43-44.
E. T. Koh, M. Torabinejad, T. R. Pitt Ford, K. Brady, F. McDonald. “Mineral trioxide aggregate stimulates a biological response in human osteoblasts”. Biomed Mater Res. Vol. 5. 1997. pp. 432-439.
S. J. Northup, J. N. Cammack. “Mammalian cell culture models”. Handbook of biomaterial evaluation: scientific, technical, and clinical testing of implant materials. 2.a ed. Taylor & Francis. Ann Arbor. 1999. pp.325-339.
J. P. Kaltenbach, M. H. Kaltenbach, W. B. Lyons. “Nigrosin as a dye for differentiating live and dead ascites cells”. Exp Cell Res. Vol. 15. 1958. pp. 112-117.
R. I. Freshney. “Cytotoxicity”. Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique. Wiley. New York. 2000. p. 331.
M. Pawinska, E. Skrzydlewska. “Release of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide preparations used in endodontic treatment”. An Acad Med Bialost. Vol. 48. 2003. pp. 145-149.
M. K. Caliscan, M. Tûrkûn. “Prognosis of permanent teeth with internal resorption: a clinical review”. Endod Dent Traumatol. Vol. 13. 1997. pp. 75-78.
S. J. Clark, P. Eleazer. “Management of a horizontal root fracture after previous root canal therapy”. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. Vol. 89. 2000. pp. 220-223.
S. Seltzer. Endodontology Ciologic considerations in endodontic procedures, 2a ed, Philadelphia, Lea & Felager Co. 1988. pp. 281-325.
R. Weinstein, M. Goldman. “Apical hard tissue deposition in adult teeth of monkeys with use of calcium hydroxide”. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. Vol. 43. 1977. pp. 627-630.
G. J. Verbeck. Carbonation of Hydrated Portland Cement. Research and Development Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association. Bulletin 87. 1958.
S. H. Inayat-Hussain, N. F. Rajab, H. Roslie, A. A. Hussin, A. M. Ali, B. O. Annuar. “Cell death induced by hydroxyapatite on L929 fibroblast cells”. Med J Malaysia. Vol. 59. 2004. pp. 176-177.
T. G. Van Kooten, C. L. Klein, H. Kohler, C. J. Kirkpatrick, D. F. Williams, R. Eloy. ”From cytotoxicity to biocompatibility testing in vitro: cell adhesion molecule expression defines a new set of parameters”. J Mater Sci Mater Med. Vol. 8. 1997. pp. 835-41.
J. Wen, H. Q. Mao, W. Li, K. Y. Lin, K. W. Leong. “Biodegradable polyphosphoester micelles for gene delivery”. J Pharm Sci. Vol. 93. 2004. pp. 2142-57.
G. Ciapetti, P. Roda, L. Landi, A. Facchini, A. Pizzoferrato. “In vitro methods to evaluate metal-cell interactions”. Int J Artif Organs. Vol. 15. 1992. pp. 62-66.
I. H. Kalfas. “Principles of bone healing”. Neurosurg Focus. Vol. 10. 2001. Article 1.
C. Schiller, M. Epple. “Carbonated calcium phosphates are suitable pH-stabilising. fillers for biodegradable polyesters”. Biomaterials. Vol. 24. 2003. pp. 2037–2043.
T. Serizawa, T. Tateishi, M. Akashi. “Cell-compatible properties of calcium carbonates and hydroxyapatite deposited on ultrathin poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated polyethylene films”. J Biomater Sci Polym. Vol. 14. 2003. pp. 653-663.
G. Guillemin, J. Patat, J. Fournié, M. Chetail. “The use of coral as a bone graft substitute”. J Biomed Mater Res. Vol. 21. 1987. pp. 557-567.
M. Richard, E. Aguado, G. Daculsi, M. Cottrel. “Ultrastructural and electron diffraction of the boneceramic interfacial zone in coral and biphasic calcium phosphate implants”. Calcif Tissue Int. Vol. 62. 1998. pp. 437-442.
F. Roux, D. Brasnu, B. Loty, B. Georges, G. Guillemin. “Madreporic coral: a new bone graft substitute for cranial surgery”. J Biomed Mater Res. Vol. 69. 1988. pp. 510-513.
J. Ouhayoun, A. Shabana, S. Issakian. “Histological evaluation of natural coral skeleton as a grafting material in miniature swine mandible”. J Mater Sci Med. Vol. 2. 1992. pp. 222- 228.
R. Kania, A. Meunier, M. Hamadouche, L. Sedel, H. Petite. “Addition of fibrin sealant to ceramic promotes bone repair: long term study in rabbit femoral defect model”. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater). Vol. 43. 1998. pp. 38-45.
American Society for Testing and Materials, 1975, ASTM C595, Standard Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 13, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA p. 353.
S. L. Meyers. Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Hydrated Cement and Concrete. Rock Products 1949, pp. 96-98.
G. W. Whitman, R.P. Russell, W.J. Altieri. “Effect of Hydrogen Ion Concentration on the Submerged Corrosion of Steel”. Ind. Eng. Chem. Vol. 16. 1924. pp. 665-670.
J. R. Mosley. “Osteoporosis and bone functional adaptation: mechanobiological regulation of bone architecture in growing and adult bone, a review”. J Rehabil Res Develop. Vol. 37. 2000. pp. 189–99.
O. Akhouayri, M.H. Lafage-Proust, A. Rattner, N. Laroche, A Caillot- Augusseau, C. Alexandre, L. Vico. “Effects of static or dynamic mechanical stresses on osteoblast phenotype expression in threedimensional contractile collagen gels”. J Cell Biochem. Vol. 76. 2000. pp. 217–230.
S. W. Suh, J. Y. Shin, J. Kim, C. H. Beak, D. I. Kim, H. Kim, S. S. Jeon, I.W. Choo. “Effect of different particles on cell proliferation in polymer scaffolds using a solvent-casting and particulate leaching technique”. ASAIO J. Vol. 48. 2002. pp. 460-464.
S. H. Oh, S. G. Kang, E. S. Kim, S. H. Cho, J. H. Lee. “Fabrication and characterization of hydrophilic poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend cell scaffolds by melt-molding particulate-leaching method”. Biomaterials. Vol. 24. 2003. pp. 4011-4021.
Copyright (c) 2006 Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors can archive the pre-print version (i.e., the version prior to peer review) and post-print version (that is, the final version after peer review and layout process) on their personal website, institutional repository and / or thematic repository
- Upon acceptance of an article, it will be published online through the page https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/ingenieria/issue/archive in PDF version with its correspondent DOI identifier
The Revista Facultad de Ingeniería -redin- encourages the Political Constitution of Colombia, chapter IV
Chapter IV Sanctions 51
The following shall be liable to imprisonment for two to five years and a fine of five to 20 times the legal minimum monthly wage: (1) any person who publishes an unpublished literary or artistic work, or part thereof, by any means, without the express prior authorization of the owner of rights; (2) any person who enters in the National Register of Copyright a literary, scientific or artistic work in the name of a person other than the true author, or with its title altered or deleted, or with its text altered, deformed, amended or distorted, or with a false mention of the name of the publisher or phonogram, film, videogram or software producer; (3) any person who in any way or by any means reproduces, disposes of, condenses, mutilates or otherwise transforms a literary, scientific or artistic work without the express prior authorization of the owners thereof; (4) any person who reproduces phonograms, videograms, software or cinematographic works without the express prior authorization of the owner, or transports, stores, stocks, distributes, imports, sells, offers for sale, acquires for sale or distribution or in any way deals in such reproductions. Paragraph. If either the material embodiment or title page of or the introduction to the literary work, phonogram, videogram, software or cinematographic work uses the name, business style, logotype or distinctive mark of the lawful owner of rights, the foregoing sanctions shall be increased by up to half.