Prevalence of maxillofacial injuries in women who have experienced physical violence reported at a house of justice in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga (Colombia)


  • Ingrid Johanna Contreras-Ochoa Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander
  • Edna Mariam Portillo-Vilardy Universidad Santo Tomás
  • Martha Juliana Rodríguez Universidad Santo Tomás



Prevalence, Domestic violence, Violence against women, Edema, Hematoma


Introduction: the data on physical violence against women in Colombia are high, with the face being one of the most affected regions; however, data on injuries types is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of maxillofacial lesions caused by physical violence in women who have reported such violence at a House of Justice in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga (Colombia) from September 2013 to March 2015. Methods: a descriptive prevalence study was conducted in 258 expert reports filed on the aforementioned dates. Sociodemographic variables, lesion types and aggressor characteristics were analyzed; data was collected through an instrument created based on the parameters of the National Institute for Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences. Frequencies and proportions were calculated for qualitative variables, as well as measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative variables. The Chi2 test or Fisher’s Exact test were used for bivariate analysis as needed. A p value lower than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: the women/men ratio was 2.8. The prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was 55.4% when considering 157 expert reports of women 18 years of age or older. In 81 reports (93.1%) the aggressor was known and in 47 cases (58%) the aggressor was the husband. Conclusions: the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was 55.4%, with hematoma being the most common type of injuries as related in 49 reports (56.3%).

= 201 veces | PDF
= 123 veces| | HTML
= 9 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ingrid Johanna Contreras-Ochoa, Unidades Tecnológicas de Santander

DDS, Universidad Santo Tomás.

Edna Mariam Portillo-Vilardy, Universidad Santo Tomás

DDS, Universidad Santo Tomás

Martha Juliana Rodríguez, Universidad Santo Tomás

Professor, Universidad Santo Tomás. Master in Epidemiology, Universidad Industrial de Santander. Specialist in Pediatric Dentistry and Preventive Orthodontics, Universidad CES


Garcia-Moreno C, Jansen HA, Ellsberg M, Heise L, Watts CH, Health WHOM-cSoWs et al. Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Lancet. 2006; 368(9543): 1260-9. DOI:

Organización de Naciones Unidas Mujeres. Hechos y cifras: acabar con la violencia contra mujeres y niñas [Internet]. Available in


Krantz G, Garcia-Moreno C. Violence against women. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005; 59(10): 818-21. DOI:

República de Colombia. Ley 1257 de 2008. Bogotá: Congreso de la República; 2008.

República de Colombia. Programa nacional casas de justicia: la justicia entra por casa. Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional de Colombia; 2012.

Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, Profamilia. Violencias de género. En: Encuesta nacional de demografía y salud. Tomo 2. [Bogotá]: Minsalud; 2015. p.395 - 454

Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses. Comportamiento de la violencia de pareja. En: Forensis: datos para la vida. Bogotá: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses; 2018. p.257-300.

Mafla AC, López EA, Guerrero KA, Rubiano S, Insuasty AC, Bolaños EO et al. Estudio retrospectivo de causas de trauma maxilofacial en Pasto, Colombia de 2001 a 2006. Rev Ind Santander Salud. 2009; 41(2): 142-8.

Nelms A, Gutman M, Solomon E, Dewald J, Campbell P. What victims of domestic violence need from dental profession. J Dent Educ. 2009; 73(4): 490-8.

Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses. Reglamento técnico para el abordaje integral de lesiones en clínica forense. Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional de Colombia; 2010.

República de Colombia, Ministerio de Salud. Resolución No. 08430 de 4 de octubre de 1993. Bogotá: Minsalud; 1993.

De Macedo Bernardino I, Santos LM, Ferreira AVP, de Almeida Lima TLM, da Nóbrega L, d’Avila S. Intimate partner violence against women, circumstances of aggressions and oral-maxillofacial traumas: a medical-legal and forensic approach. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2018; 31: 1-6. DOI:

Saddki N, Suhaimi AA, Daud R. Maxillofacial injuries associated with intimate partner violence in women. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10: 268. DOI:

Wong JY, Choi AW, Fong DY, Wong JK, Lau CL, Kam CW. Patterns, aetiology and risk factors of intimate partner violence-related injuries to head, neck and face in Chinese women. BMC Womens Health. 2014; 14: 6. DOI:

Le BT, Dierks EJ, Ueeck BA, Homer LD, Potter BF. Maxillofacial injuries associated with domestic violence. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001; 59(11): 1277-83; discussion 83-4. DOI:

Caldas IM, Magalhães T, Afonso A, Matos E. The consequences of orofacial trauma resulting from violence: a study in Porto. Dent Traumatol. 2010; 26(6): 484-9. DOI:

Ochs HA, Neunschwander MC, Dodson TB. Are head, neck and facial injuries markers of domestic violence? J Am Dent Assoc. 1996; 127(6): 757 - 61. DOI:

Brink O. When violence strikes the head, neck, and face. J Trauma. 2009; 67(1): 147-51. DOI:

Da Nóbrega LM, Bernardino IM, Barbosa KGN, E Silva JAL, Massoni A, d’Avila S. Pattern of oral-maxillofacial trauma from violence against women and its associated factors. Dent Traumatol. 2017; 33(3): 181-8. DOI:

Arosarena OA, Fritsch TA, Hsueh Y, Aynehchi B, Haug R. Maxillofacial injuries and violence against women. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2009; 11(1): 48-52. DOI:

Hashemi HM, Beshkar M. The prevalence of maxillofacial fractures due to domestic violence--a retrospective study in a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Dent Traumatol. 2011; 27(5): 385-8. DOI:

Da Silva EN, Oliveira Matos FRR, Pimienta RMC, Rodrigues JLS, Marques JAM, Musse JdO, et al. Epidemiological profile and characterization of oral and maxillofacial injuries in women victims of interpersonal violence. Int J Odontostomatol. 2016; 10(1): 11-6.

Quintana Díaz JD, Giralt López BM. Analisis de las fracturas maxilofaciales en deportes de combate. Rev. cuba. ortop. traumatol. 1998; 12(1-2): 66-8.

Tuesca R, Borda M. [Marital violence in Barranquilla [Colombia]: prevalence and risk factors]. Gac Sanit. 2003; 17(4): 302-8.

Owusu Adjah ES, Agbemafle I. Determinants of domestic violence against women in Ghana. BMC Public Health. 2016; 16: 368. DOI:

Díaz FJM, Fernández CA. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the maxillofacial trauma due to physical violence against the woman. MediSan. 2014; 18(12): 1630-8.




How to Cite

Contreras-Ochoa, I. J., Portillo-Vilardy, E. M., & Rodríguez, M. J. (2019). Prevalence of maxillofacial injuries in women who have experienced physical violence reported at a house of justice in the metropolitan area of Bucaramanga (Colombia). Revista Facultad De Odontología Universidad De Antioquia, 31(1-2), 102–111.