Tales of mice and men: Natural History of Arenaviruses


  • Juan David Rodas G.
  • Maria S. Salvato




hemorrhagic fever, LCM, rodent-borne viruses



Nowadays, Arenaviruses are among the most feared viruses due to their potential as weapons for bioterrorism purposes. This potential is based on their increasing diversity and the fact that they are carried by rodentswhose biologic success compares only wit insects and humans. The prototype of this family is Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus which has been and excellent tool for a myriad of discoveries in immunology. Arenaviruses have been known for over 70 years but the number of members of the family is growing thanks to their insidious subsistence in third world countries and to the nature of their genome, that makes of them sorts of skilful machines for evolution This review collects some of the work of the authors about the best-known features described for this group of viruses, among  the many still-to-be discovered characteristics of this puzzling, and hard-to-study, group of zoonotic viruses.


En la actualidad, los arenavirus son considerados uno de los grupos de virus más temidos debido a su potencial uso como armas para el bio-terrorismo, debido a su diversidad creciente y a que son portados por roedores, cuyo éxito para sobrevivir,  y adaptarse, solo puede compararse con el de los mosquitos y los seres humanos. El prototipo de esta familia viral, el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica, ha servido como herramienta para una gran cantidad de descubrimientos sobre la respuesta inmune. Los arenavirus han sido conocidos por más de 70 años, pero la  familia aún sigue creciendo, gracias a su subsistencia insidiosa en los países del tercer mundo, y a su naturaleza genética, que les permite comportarse como máquinas "habilidosas" para la evolución. Esta revisión, recoge algunos de los resultados de los autores sobre los rasgos mejor conocidos, entre los muchos que aún no han sido descubiertos en grupo de virus zoonóticos, intrigante y muy difíciles de estudiar.

= 43 veces | PDF
= 10 veces|


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed RBD, Jamieson BD D, Porter D. Immune therapy of a persistent and disseminated viral infection. J Virol 1987; 61:3920-3929

Ahmed R, King CC, Oldstone MB. Virus-lymphocyte interaction: T cells of the helper subset are infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus during persistent infection in vivo. J Virol 1987; 61:1571-1576.

Allan JE, Doherty PC. Immune T cells can protect or induce fatal neurological disease in murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Cell Immunol 1985; 90:401-407.

Alvarez FA, Biquard C, Figini HA, Gutiérrez Márquez JM, et.al . [Neurological complications of Argentinian hemorrhagic fever]. Neurol Neurocir Psiquiatr 1977; 18:357-373.

Amerongen HM, Weltzin R, Farnet CM, et. al. Transepithelial transport of HIV-1 by intestinal M cells: a mechanism for transmission of AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991; 4:760-765.

Archer AM, Rico-Hesse R. High genetic divergence and recombination in Arenaviruses from the Americas. Virology 2002; 304:274-281.

Armstrong C, Lillie RD. Experimental lymphocytic choriomeningitis of monkeys and mice produced by a virus encountered in studies of the 1933 St Louis encephalitis epidemic. Pub Health Rep (Washington) 1934; 49:1019–1027.

Asper MP, Hofmann C, Osmann J, et.al . First outbreak of callitrichid hepatitis in Germany: genetic characterization of the causative lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains. Virology 2001; 284:203-213.

Auperin DD. In M. S. Salvato (ed.), The Arenaviridae. Construction and evaluation of recombinant virus vaccines for Lassa fever. Plenum Press, New York, 1993, p. 259–280.

Auperin DD, Esposito JJ, Lange JV, Bauer SP, Knight J, Sasso DR, and McCormick JB. Construction of a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the Lassa virus glycoprotein gene and protection of guinea pigs from a lethal Lassa virus infection. Virus Res 1988; 9:233-248.

Ávila MM, Samoilovich SR, Laguens RP,.et. al. ProtectionProtection of Junin virus-infected marmosets by passive administration of immune serum: association with late neurologic signs. J Med Virol 1987; 21:67-74.

Bachmann MF, Kundig TM, Freer G, et . al. Induction of protective cytotoxic T cells with viral proteins. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24:2228-2236.

Baenziger J, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM, Cole GA. Induction or prevention of immunopathological disease by cloned cytotoxic T cell lines specific for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Eur J Immunol 1986; 16:387-393.

Baldridge JR, Pearce BD, Parekh BS, Buchmeier MJ. Teratogenic effects of neonatal arenavirus infection on the developing rat cerebellum are abrogated by passive immunotherapy. Virology 1993; 197:669-677.

Ballart I, Eschle D, Cattaneo R, Schmid A, et .al. Udem, and M. A. Billeter. Infectious measles virus from cloned cDNA. Embo J 1990; 9:379-384.

Barrera Oro JG, McKee KT. Toward a vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 1991; 25:118-126.

Barry M, Russi M, Armstrong L, Geller D, et. al. Brief report: treatment of a laboratory-acquired Sabia virus infection. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:294-296.

Barton LL, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: an unrecognized teratogenic pathogen. Emerg Infect Dis 1995; 1:152-153.

Biggar RJ, Schmidt TJ, Woodall JP. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis in laboratory personnel exposed to hamsters inadvertently infected with LCM virus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977; 171:829-832.

Bonilla WV, Pinschewer DD, Klenerman P, et.al. Effects of promyelocytic leukemia protein on virus-host balance. J Virol 2002; 76:3810-3818.

Borrow P, Tishon A, Oldstone MB. Infection of lymphocytes by a virus that aborts cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and establishes persistent infection. J Exp Med 1991; 174:203-212.

Bowen MD, Peters CJ, Mills JN, Nichol ST. Oliveros virus: a novel arenavirus from Argentina. Virology 1996; 217:362-366.s from Argentina. Virology 1996; 217:362-366.Virology 1996; 217:362-366.

Bowen MD, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. Phylogenetic analysis of the Arenaviridae: patterns of virus evolution and evidence for cospeciation between arenaviruses and their rodent hosts. Mol Phylogenet Evol 1997; 8:301-316.

Bowen MD, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. The phylogeny of New World (Tacaribe complex) arenaviruses. Virology 1996; 219:285-290.

Bridgen A, Elliott RM. Rescue of a segmented negative-strand RNA virus entirely from cloned complementary DNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1996; 93:15400-15404.

Bruns M, Lehmann-Grube F. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. VII. Structural alterations of the virion by treatment with proteolytic enzymes without loss of infectivity. J Gen Virol 1984; 65 ( Pt 8):1431-1435.

Buchholz, U J, S Finke, KK Conzelmann. Generation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) from cDNA: BRSV NS2 is not essential for virus replication in tissue culture, and the human RSV leader region acts as a functional BRSV genome promoter. J Virol 1999; 73:251-259.

Buchmeier MJ. Arenaviruses: protein structure and function. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 262:159-173.

Buchmeier MJ, Lewicki HA, Tomori O, et.al. Monoclonal antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis and pichinde viruses: generation, characterization, and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses. Virology 1981; 113:73-85.

Buchmeier MJ, Parekh BS. Protein structure and expression among arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1987; 133:41-57.

Cao W, Henry MD, Borrow P, Yamada H, et. al . Identification of alpha-dystroglycan as a receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Lassa fever virus. Science 1998; 282:2079-2081.

Cash RA, Alam J, and Toaha KM. Gastric acid secretion in cholera patients. Lancet 1970; 2:1192.

Charrel RN, Lamballerie X, Fulhorst CF. The Whitewater Arroyo virus: natural evidence for genetic recombination among Tacaribe serocomplex viruses (family Arenaviridae). Virology 2001; 283:161-166.

Charrel RN, Feldmann H, Fulhorst CF, et. al. Phylogeny of New World arenaviruses based on the complete coding sequences of the small genomic segment identified an evolutionary lineage produced by intrasegmental recombination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 296:1118-1124.

Childs JE, Glass GE, Ksiazek TG, et . al.Human-rodent contact and infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis and Seoul viruses in an inner-city population. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1991; 44:117-121.

Coimbra TL, and Nassar ES. New arenavirus isolated inNew arenavirus isolated in Brazil. Lancet 1994; 343:391–392.Lancet 1994; 343:391–392.

Contigiani MS, Medeot SI, Diaz GE, et. al . Rapid vascularRapid vascular clearance of two strains of Junin virus in Calomys musculinus: selective macrophage clearance. Acta Virol 1991; 35:144-151.

Cummins D, Fisher-Hoch SP, Walshe KJ, et .al. A plasma inhibitor of platelet aggregation in patients with Lassa fever. Br J Haematol 1989; 72:543-548.

Cummins D, Molinas FC, Lerer G, Maiztegui JI, et.al. AA plasma inhibitor of platelet aggregation in patients with Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1990; 42:470-475.

Dalton AJ, Rowe WP, Smith GH, et. al. Morphological and cytochemical studies on lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol 1968; 2:1465-1478.

Danes L, Benda R, Fuchsova M. (InCzech.)Experimentalni(In Czech.) Experimentalni inhalacni nakaza opic druhu macacus cynomolgus a macacus rhesus virem lymphocitarni choriomeningitidy (kmenem WE). (In Czech.) Bratisl Lek Listy 1963; 43:71-79.

de la Torre JC, Rall G, Oldstone C, Sanna PP, et.al. Replication of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is restricted in terminally differentiated neurons. J Virol 1993; 67:7350-7359.

Di Simone C, Buchmeier MJ. Kinetics and pH dependence of acid-induced structural changes in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein complex. VirologyVirology 1995; 209:3-9.

Di Simone C, Zandonatti MA, Buchmeier MJ. AcidicAcidic pH triggers LCMV membrane fusion activity and conformational change in the glycoprotein spike. Virology 1994; 198:455-465.

Djavani M, Lukashevich IS, Salvato MS. Sequence comparison of the large genomic RNA segments of two strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus differing in pathogenic potential for guinea pigs. Virus Genes 1998; 17:151-155.

Djavani M, Yin C, Lukashevich IS, Rodas J, et. al. Mucosal immunization with Salmonella typhimurium expressing Lassa virus nucleocapsid protein cross-protects mice from lethal challenge with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Hum Virol 2001; 4:103-108.

Djavani M, Yin C, Xia L, Lukashevich IS, et.al. Salvato. Murine immune responses to mucosally delivered Salmonella expressing Lassa fever virus nucleoprotein. Vaccine 2000; 18:1543-1554

.48. Douglas GR, Wiebenga NH, Couch RB. Bolivian hemorrhagic fever probably transmitted by personal contact. Am J Epidemiol 1965; 82:85–91.

Downs WG, Anderson CR, et.al. Tacaribe virus: a newagent isolated from Artibeus bats and mosquitoes in Trinidad, West Indies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1963; 12:640–646.

Dutko FJ, Oldstone MB. Genomic and biological variation among commonly used lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains. J Gen Virol 1983; 64 (Pt 8):1689-1698.

Dykewicz CA, Dato VM, Fisher-Hoch SP, et . al .Lymphocytic choriomeningitis outbreak associated with nude mice in a research institute. JAMA 1992; 267:1349-1353.

Eddy GA, Scott SK, Wagner FS, Brand OM. Pathogenesis of Machupo virus infection in primates. Bull World Health Organ 1975; 52:517-521.

Eddy GA, Wagner FS, Scott SK, Mahlandt BJ. Protection of monkeys against Machupo virus by the passive administration of Bolivian haemorrhagic fever immunoglobulin (human origin). Bull World Health Organ 1975; 52:723-727.

Enria DA, Maiztegui JI. Antiviral treatment of ArgentineAntiviral treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Antiviral Res 1994; 23:23-31.

Farmer TW, Janeway CA. Infections with the virus of lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Medicine 1942; 21:1–64.

Fisher-Hoch S. Pathophysiology of shock and haemorrhage in viral haemorrhagic fevers. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1987; 18:390-391.

Fisher-Hoch S, McCormick JB, Sasso D, Craven RB. Hematologic dysfunction in Lassa fever. J Med Virol 1988; 26:127-135.

Fisher-Hoch SP. In M. Salvato S (ed.), The Arenaviridae. Arenavirus pathophysiology. Plenum Press, New York 1993, p. 299–323

Fisher-Hoch SP, Hutwagner L, Brown B, McCormick JB. Effective vaccine for lassa fever. J Virol 2000; 74:6777-6783.

Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB. Pathophysiology and treatment of Lassa fever. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1987; 134:231-239.

Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB. Towards a human Lassa fever vaccine. Rev Med Virol 2001; 11:331-341.

Fisher-Hoch SP, Platt GS, Lloyd G, et.al. Haematological and biochemical monitoring of Ebola infection in rhesus monkeys: implications for patient management. Lancet 1983; 2:1055-1058

.63. Fisher-Hoch SP, Price ME, Craven RB, et. al. Safe intensive-care management of a severe case of Lassa fever with simple barrier nursing techniques. Lancet 1985; 2:1227-1229.

Franze-Fernandez MT, Zetina C, Iapalucci S,.et. al ..Molecular structure and early events in the replication of Tacaribe arenavirus S RNA. Virus Res 1987; 7:309-324.

Fulhorst CF, Bennett SG, Milazzo ML,. et. al ..Bear Canyon virus: an arenavirus naturally associated with the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). Emerg Infect Dis 2002; 8:717-721.

Gandhi RT, Walker BD. Promises and pitfalls in the reconstitution of immunity in patients who have HIV-1 infection. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14:487-494.

Gandsman EJ, Aaslestad HG, Ouimet TC, Rupp WD. Sabia virus incident at Yale University. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1997; 58:51-53.

Ghiringhelli PD, Goñi SS, Lozano ME, Posik DM, Romanowski V. Presented at the XII InternationalPresented at the XII International Congress of Virology, Paris, France 2002.

Gilden DH, Cole GA, Monjan AA, Nathanson N. Immunopathogenesis of acute central nervous system disease produced by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. I. Cyclophosphamide-mediated induction by the virus-carrier state in adult mice. J Exp Med 1972; 135:860-873.

Glushakova SE, Lukashevich IS. Early events in arenavirus replication are sensitive to lysosomotropic compounds. Arch Virol 1989; 104:157-161.

Glushakova SE, Lukashevich IS, Baratova LA. Prediction of arenavirus fusion peptides on the basis of computer analysis of envelope protein sequences. FEBS Lett 1990; 269:145-147.

Glushakova SE, Omelyanenko VG, Lukashevitch IS, et. al. The fusion of artificial lipid membranes induced by the synthetic arenavirus ‘fusion peptide’. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1110:202-208.

Hany M, Oehen S, Schulz M, Hengartner H,. et . al. Anti-viral protection and prevention of lymphocytic choriomeningitis or of the local footpad swelling reaction in mice by immunization with vaccinia-recombinant virus expressing LCMV-WE nucleoprotein or glycoprotein. Eur J Immunol 1989; 19:417-424.

Hinman AR, Fraser DW, Douglas RG,. et.al. Outbreak of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections in medical center personnel. Am J Epidemiol 1975; 101:103-110.

Jahrling PB,. Hesse RA, Eddy GA, Johnson KM,. et.al. Lassa virus infection of rhesus monkeys: pathogenesis andtreatment with ribavirin. J Infect Dis 1980; 141:580-589.

Jahrling PB, Peters CJ. Passive antibody therapy of Lassa fever in cynomolgus monkeys: importance of neutralizing antibody and Lassa virus strain. Infect Immun 1984; 44:528-533.

Jahrling PB, Peters CJ. Serology and virulence diversity among Old-World arenaviruses, and the relevance to vaccine development. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1986; 175:165-167.

Johnson KM. Epidemiology of Machupo virus infection. 3. Significance of virological observations in man and animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1965; 14:816-818.

Johnson KM, Kuns ML, Mackenzie RB, Webb PA, Yunker CE. Isolation of Machupo virus from wild rodent Calomys callosus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1966; 15:103-106.

Johnson KM, Mackenzie RB, Webb PA, Kuns ML. Chronic infection of rodents by Machupo virus. Science 1965; 150:1618-1619.

Johnson KM, McCormick JB, Webb PA, et.al. Clinical virology of Lassa fever in hospitalized patients. J Infect Dis, 1987; 155:456-464.

Johnson KM, Taylor P, Elliott LH, Tomori O. Recovery of a Lassa-related arenavirus in Zimbabwe. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1981; 30:1291-1293.

Kagi D, Vignaux F, Ledermann B, Burki K, et.al. Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Science 1994; 265:528-530.

Kastello MD, Eddy GA, Kuehne RW. A rhesus monkey model for the study of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 1976; 133:57-62.

Klavinskis LS, Whitton JL, Joly E, Oldstone MB. Vaccination and protection from a lethal viral infection: identification, incorporation, and use of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte glycoprotein epitope. Virology 1990; 178:393-400.

Krasnianskii VP, Potryvaeva NV, Borisevich IV, et.al. [A trial to produce an inactivated Lassa fever vaccine]. Vopr Virusol 1993; 38:276-279.

Kuns ML. Epidemiology of Machupo virus infection. II. Ecological and control studies of hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1965; 14:813-816.

Kunz S, Borrow P, Oldstone MB. Receptor structure, binding, and cell entry of arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 262:111-137.

La Posta VJ, Auperin DD, Kamin-Lewis R, Cole GA. Cross-protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mediated by a CD4+ T-cell clone specific for an envelope glycoprotein epitope of Lassa virus. J Virol 1993; 67:3497-3506.

Lee KJ, de la Torre JC. Reverse genetics of arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 262:175-193.91. Lehmann-Grube F. Portraits of viruses: arenaviruses. Intervirology 1984; 22:121-145.

Leifer E, Gocke DJ, Bourne H. Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. II. Report of a laboratory-acquired infection treated with plasma from a person recently recovered from the disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970; 19:677-679.

Lukashevich IS. Generation of reassortants between African arenaviruses. Virology 1992; 188:600-605.

Lukashevich IS, Djavani M, Rodas JD, Zapata JC, et.al. Hemorrhagic fever occurs after intravenous, but not after intragastric, inoculation of rhesus macaques with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Med Virol 2002; 67:171-186.

Lukashevich IS, Tikhonov I, Rodas JD, et.al. Arenavirus-mediated liver pathology: acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of rhesus macaques is characterized by high-level interleukin-6 expression and hepatocyte proliferation. J Virol 2003; 77:1727-1737.

Mackenzie RB, Beye HK, et .al. Epidemic hemor rhagic fever in Bolivia. 1. A preliminar y report of the epidemiologic and clinical f indings in a new epidemic area South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1964; 13:620 – 625.

Maiztegui JI, Fernandez NJ, de Damilano AJ. Efficacy ofEfficacy of immune plasma in treatment of Argentine haemorrhagic fever and association between treatment and a late neurological syndrome. Lancet 1979; 2:1216-1217.

Maiztegui JI, Laguens RP, Cossio PM,.et. al. UltrastructuralUltrastructural and immunohistochemical studies in five cases of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis 1975;J Infect Dis 1975; 132:35-53.

Martinez Peralta LA, Laguens M, Ponzinibbio C, Laguens RP. Infection of guinea pigs with two strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis vir us. Medicina (B Aires) 1990; 50:225-229.

Martins LP, Lau LL, Asano MS, Ahmed R. DNA vaccination against persistent viral infection. J Virol 1995; 69:2574-2582.

McCormick JB. 1990. Arenaviruses. In B. N. Fields and D. M. Knipe (ed.), Fields’ Virology, 2nd edn ed. Raven Press, New York. p. 1245–1267.

McCormick, J. B. Clinical, epidemiologic, and therapeutic aspects of Lassa fever. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl), 1986; 175:153-5.

McCormick JB, Fisher-Hoch SP. Lassa fever. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 262:75-109.

McCormick JB, King IJ, Webb PA, Johnson KM, et.al. A case-control study of the clinical diagnosis and course of Lassa fever. J Infect Dis 1987; 155:445-455.

McCormick JB, King IJ,. Webb PA, Scribner CL, et . al. Lassa fever. Effective therapy with ribavirin. N Engl J Med 1986; 314:20-26.

McCormick JB, Mitchell SW, Kiley MP, Ruo S, Fisher-Hoch SP. Inactivated Lassa virus elicits a non protective immune response in rhesus monkeys. J Med Virol 1992; 37:1-7.

McCormick JB, Walker DH, King IJ, Webb PA, L, et.al. Lassa virus hepatitis: a study of fatal Lassa fever in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1986; 35:401-407.

McKee KT, Oro JG, Kuehne AI, Spisso JA, Mahlandt B.. Safety and immunogenicity of a live-attenuated Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever) vaccine in rhesus macaques. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 48:403-411.

Mills JN, Barrera Oro JG, Bressler DS, et.al. Characterization of Oliveros virus, a new member of the Tacaribe complex (Arenaviridae: Arenavirus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996; 54:399-404.

Mills JN, Ellis BA, McKee KT, Ksiazek TG, et .al. Junin vir us activity in rodents from endemic and nonendemic loci in central Argentina. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1991; 44:589-597.

Monath TP, Newhouse VF, Kemp GE, Setzer HW, Cacciapuoti A. Lassa virus isolation from Mastomys natalensis rodents during an epidemic in Sierra Leone. Science 1974; 185:263-265.

Moncayo AC, Hice CL, Watts DM, et.al. Allpahuayo virus: a newly recognized arenavirus (arenaviridae) from arboreal rice rats (oecomys bicolor and oecomys paricola) in northeastern peru. Virology 2001; 284:277-286.

Montali RJ, Connolly BM, Armstrong DL, Scanga CA, Holmes KV. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of callitrichid hepatitis, an emerging disease of captive New World primates caused by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Am J Pathol 1995; 147:1441-1449.

Montali RJ, Scanga CA, Pernikoff D, Wessner DR, Ward R, Holmes KV. A common-source outbreak of callitrichid hepatitis in captive tamarins and marmosets. J Infect Dis 1993; 167:946-950.

Morrison HG, Bauer SP, Lange JV, Esposito JJ, et . al. Protection of guinea pigs from Lassa fever by vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the nucleoprotein or the envelope glycoproteins of Lassa virus. Virology 1989; 171:179-188.

Murphy FA. Arenavirus taxonomy: a review. Bull World Health Organ 1975; 52:389-391.

Murphy FA, Johnson KM. An exotic viral disease acquired in a laboratory. N Engl J Med 1995; 333:317-318.

Neumann G, Watanabe T, Ito H, Watanabe S, et. al. Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96:9345-9350.

Oehen S, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. Vaccination for disease. Science 1991; 251:195-198.

Oldstone MB. The arenaviruses--an introduction. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1987; 134:1-4.

Oldstone MB, Tishon A, Geckeler R, Lewicki H, Whitton JL.. A common antiviral cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope for diverse major histocompatibility complex haplotypes: implications for vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992; 89:2752-2755.

Oldstone MB, Whitton JL, Lewicki H, Tishon A. Fine dissection of a nine amino acid glycoprotein epitope, a major determinant recognized by lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific class I-restricted H-2Db cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1988; 168:559-570.

Oldstone MB. A. In N. Natason (ed.), Viral pathogenesis. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, 1997, p. 593-627.

Park JY, Peters CJ, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, et . al. Development of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection and its use in a prospective surveillance study. J Med Virol 1997; 51:107-114.

Parodi AS, Greenway DJ, et.al. Sobre la etiología del brote epidémico de Junín. Diagn Med 1958; 30:2300–2302.

Peters, C. J., P. B. Jahrling, C. T. Liu, R. H. Kenyon, K. T. McKee, Jr., and J. G. Barrera Oro. Experimental studies of arenaviral hemorrhagic fevers. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 1987; 134:5-68.

Peters CJ, Kuehne RW, Mercado RR, Le Bow RH, Spertzel RO, Webb PA. 1974. Hemorrhagic fever in Cochabamba, Bolivia, Am J Epidemiol 1971; 99:425-433.

Polyak SJ, Zheng S, Harnish DG. Analysis of Pichinde arenavirus transcription and replication in human THP-1 monocytic cells. Virus Res 1995; 36:37-48.

Price ME, Fisher-Hoch SP, Craven RB, McCormick JB. A prospective study of maternal and fetal outcome in acute Lassa fever infection during pregnancy. British Med J 1988; 297:584-587.

Rai SK, Cheung DS, Wu MS, Warner TF, Salvato MS. Murine infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus following gastric inoculation. J Virol 1996; 70:7213-7218.

Rai SK, Micales BK, Wu MS, Cheung DS, et.al. Timed appearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus after gastric inoculation of mice. Am J Pathol 1997; 151:633-639.

Rivers TM, Scott TFM. Meningitis in man caused by a filterable virus. Science 1935; 81:439–440.

Rivers TM, Scott TFM. Meningitis in man caused by a filterable virus. 2. Identification of the etiological agent. J Exp Med 1936; 63:415–432.

Riviere Y, Ahmed R, Oldstone MB. The use of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus reassortants to map viral genes causing virulence. Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1986; 175:191-192.

Riviere Y, Oldstone MB. Genetic reassortants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: unexpected disease and mechanism of pathogenesis. J Virol 1986; 59:363-368.

Roberts PJ, Cummins D, Bainton AL, Walshe KJ, et.al. Plasma from patients with severe Lassa fever profoundly modulates f-met-leu-phe induced superoxide generation in neutrophils. Br J Haematol 1989; 73:152-157.

Rodas JD, Lukashevich I, Zapata JC, et . al. Mucosal arenavirus infection of primates can protect from lethal hemorrhagic fever. J Med Virol 2004; 72: 424-435.

Rowe WP, Murphy FA, Bergold GH, Casals J, et.al. Arenoviruses: proposed name for a newly defined virus group. J Virol 1970; 5:651-652.

Salazar-Bravo J, Ruedas LA, Yates L. Mammalian reservoirs of arenaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2002; 262:25-63.

Salvato M, Shimomaye E, Oldstone MB. The primary structure of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus L gene encodes a putative RNA polymerase. Virology 1989; 169:377-384.

Salvato MS, Rai SK. In Mahy B (ed.), Topley and Wilson’s microbiology and microbiology and microbial infections, 9th ed. Arenaviruses. Arnold, London, United Kingdom, 1997, p. 629-650.

Salvato MS, Schweighofer KJ, Burns J, Shimomaye EM. Biochemical and immunological evidence that the 11 kDa zinc-binding protein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is a structural component of the virus. Virus Res 1992; 22:185-198.

Salvato MS, Rodas JD. In: Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial infections, (10 ed). Chapter 49: ArenavirusChapter 49: ArenavirusVirology volume, Mahy B and ter Meulen V (Eds), 2005.

Samoilovich SR, Carballal G, Frigerio MJ, Weissenbacher MC. [Detection of laboratory infections caused by Junin virus using the neutralization and immunofluorescence technics comparatively]. Rev Argent Microbiol 1983; 15:113-118.

Schnell MJ, Mebatsion T, Conzelmann KK. Infectious rabies viruses from cloned cDNA. Embo J 1994; 13:4195-4203.

Schulz M, Aichele P, Schneider R, Hansen TH,.et. al. Major histocompatibility complex binding and T cell recognition of a viral nonapeptide containing a minimal tetrapeptide. Eur J Immunol 1991; 21:1181-1185.

Schulz M, Zinkernagel RM, Hengartner H. Peptide-induced antiviral protection by cytotoxic T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991; 88:991-993.

Seiler P, Senn BM, Klenerman P, Kalinke U, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. Additive effect of neutralizing antibody and antiviral drug treatment in preventing virus escape and persistence. J Virol 2000; 74:5896-5901.

Southern PJ. In Fields BN,. Knipe DM, et . al (ed.), Arenaviridae: the viruses and their replication, Fields’ Virology, 3rd ed. Raven Press, New York, 1996, p. 1505–19.

Southern PJ, Singh MK, Riviere Y, Jacoby DR, Buchmeier MJ, Oldstone MB. Molecular characterization of the genomic S RNA segment from lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Virology 1987; 157:145-155.

Stephensen CB, Jacob JR, Montali RJ, Holmes KV, et.al. Isolation of an arenavirus from a marmoset with callitrichid hepatitis and its serologic association with disease. J Virol 1991; 65:3995-4000.

Stephensen CB, Park JY, Blount and SR. cDNA sequence analysis confirms that the etiologic agent of callitrichid hepatitis is lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol 1995; 69:1349-1352.

Stephenson EH, Larson EW, Dominik JW. Effect of environmental factors on aerosol-induced Lassa virus infection. J Med Virol 1984; 14:295-303.

Ter Meulen J, Lukashevich I, Sidibe K, Inapogui A, et.al. Hunting of peridomestic rodents and consumption of their meat as possible risk factors for rodent-to-human transmission of Lassa virus in the Republic of Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996; 55:661-666.

Tesh RB, Wilson ML, Salas R, et.al. Field studies on the epidemiology of Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever: implication of the cotton rat Sigmodon alstoni as theprobable rodent reservoir. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1993; 49:227-235.

Trapido H, Sanmartin C. Pichinde virus, a new virus of the Tacaribe group from Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1971; 20:631-641.

Traub E. A filterable virus recovered from white mice. Science 1935; 81:298–299.

Vainrub B, Salas R. Latin American hemorrhagic fever. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1994; 8:47-59.

Vanzee BE, Douglas RG, Betts RF, et.al. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis in university hospital personnel. Clinical features. Am J Med 1975; 58:803-809.

Volkert M. Studies on immunological tolerance to LCMV. 2. Treatment of virus carrier mice by adoptive immunization. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1963; 57: 465–487.

Walker DH, Johnson KM, Lange JV, Gardner JJ,. et . al. Experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Lassa virus and a closely related arenavirus, Mozambique virus. J Infect Dis 1982; 146:360-368.

Walker DH, McCormick JB, Johnson K M, et .al. Pathologic and virologic st udy of fatal Lassa fever in man. Am J Pathol 1982; 107:349-356.

Walker DH, Wulff H, Lange JV, Murphy FA. Comparative pathology of Lassa virus infection in monkeys, guinea-pigs, and Mastomys natalensis. Bull World Health Organ 1975; 52:523-534.

Webb PA, Justines G, Johnson KM. Infection of wild and laboratory animals with Machupo and Latino viruses. Bull World Health Organ 1975; 52:493-499.

Weissenbacher MC, Calello MA, Colillas OJ, Rondinone SN, Frigerio MJ. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model. Intervirology 1979; 11:363-365.

Weissenbacher MC, Laguens RP, Coto CE. ArgentineArgentine hemorrhagic fever. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1987;Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1987; 134:79-116.

Weissenbacher MC, Sabattini MS, Avila MM, Sangiorgio PM, et.al. Junin virus activity in twoJunin virus activity in two rural populations of the Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) endemic area. J Med Virol 1983; 12:273-280.

Yokoyama M, Zhang J, Whitton JL. DNA immunization confers protection against lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. J Virol 1995; 69:2684-2688.

Zinkernagel RM, Dunlop MB, Doherty PC. Cytotoxic T cell activity is strain-specific in outbred mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Immunol 1975; 115:1613-1616.




How to Cite

Rodas G., J. D., & Salvato, M. S. (2016). Tales of mice and men: Natural History of Arenaviruses. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias, 19(4), 19 . https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.324096



Original research articles

Similar Articles

> >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.