Estudio anatomopatológico de válvulas aórticas porcinas para la elaboración de bioprótesis cardíacas

Authors

  • Diego Aranzazu
  • John Bustamante O.
  • Berardo J. Rodríguez
  • Gloria E. Giraldo
  • Carlos H. Riaño
  • Anderson O. Alzate
  • Juan G. Aguilar
  • Silvia Posada A.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.324100

Keywords:

endocardiosis, endocarditis, fenestrations, valves bioimplants

Abstract

Resumen

En el ámbito mundial, las investigaciones sobre la patología valvular porcina se limitan casi enteramente a la válvula mitral y existe muy poca información sobre alteraciones  de la válvula aórtica. Las válvulas aórticas porcinas son utilizadas comúnmente como bioimplantes en humanos. Por esta razón en este estudio se propusieron los siguientes objetivos: caracterizar la patología valvular aórtica en cerdos seleccionados para la elaboración de bioprótesis valvulares cardíacas, discutir los mecanismos involucrados en el desarrollo de dichas lesiones y analizar los criterios de selección para determinar la confiabilidad del implante. Para  esto se recolectaron al azar 50 corazones con lesiones evidentes de la válvula aórtica y 50 sin lesiones evidentes. Las válvulas se procesaron por el método histopatológico de rutina y se realizaron las tinciones de Hematoxilina-Eosina y azul alciano-PAS. Los resultados se evaluaron mediante estadística descriptiva e inferencia estadística; además, se realizó un análisis mediante la prueba de Chi-cuadrado utilizando el programa SPSS  versión 1.0 para determinar asociaciones entre las variables macroscópicas y microscópicas. Las lesiones microscópicas y su frecuencia  en los dos grupos estudiados fueron, respectivamente, las siguientes: trastornos vasculares 84% y 38 %; endocardiosis 80% y 4%; fenestraciones 48%, únicamente en las que tenían lesiones obvias; valvulitis 42% y 24%. Se presentan y se correlacionan las principales alteraciones macro y microscópicas; así como los posibles mecanismos implicados en su desarrollo. Este estudio es el primero, en Colombia, que caracteriza las alteraciones patológicas de la válvula aórtica porcina.

Summary

Research on swine valvular pathology around the world is restricted almost entirely to the mitral valve and there is very little information about the alterations of the aortic valve. Aaortic swine valves are commonly used as bioimplants for humans.  For this reason in this study we decided to pursue the following aims: to characterize alterations of the aortic valve in pigs selected for the elaboration of hearth valvular bioprothesis, to discuss the mechanisms involved in the development of these lesions and to analyze the selection criteria to ensure the safety of the implants. Fifty hearts random with evident lesions, and 50 without evident lesions, of the aortic valve were randomly collected. The valves were processed by the histopathologic routine method and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and blue alciano-PAS. The results were evaluated by descriptive statistic and statistical inference, and Chi-square test using the program SPSS version 1.0 was also run to determine possible associations among the macroscopic and microscopic variables. The microscopic lesions and their frequency for each one of the two groups studied were, respectively, as fallows:  vascular dysfunctions 84% and 38%, endocardiosis 80% and 4%, fenestrations 48% only in obviously altered hearts, and valvulitis 42% and 24%. Macro and microscopic lesions are described and correlated and the possible mechanisms involved are discussed.  This is the first study dwelling with alterations of aortic swine valves, in Colombia.

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Published

2016-07-22

How to Cite

Aranzazu, D., Bustamante O., J., Rodríguez, B. J., Giraldo, G. E., Riaño, C. H., Alzate, A. O., Aguilar, J. G., & Posada A., S. (2016). Estudio anatomopatológico de válvulas aórticas porcinas para la elaboración de bioprótesis cardíacas. Revista Colombiana De Ciencias Pecuarias, 19(4), 11. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rccp.324100

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