Replacement of corn with mango meal for dairy goats
Keywords:economic evaluation, food waste, fatty acids, in vitro gas production
the high volume of mangos harvested during the season, associated with inappropriate management of the fruit after harvesting results in increased waste of this valuable resource. Mango fruit, rich in carbohydrates, has potential use in animal feeding. Objective: to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with whole mango meal (0, 330, 660, and 1000 g/Kg on dry matter basis) in the diets of dairy goats on rumen fermentation kinetics, intake, milk yield and composition, and economic results. Methods: eight lactating Saanen crossbred goats (48.7 ± 1.99 Kg body weight) were used in the experiment, which started 48 days postpartum and lasted until completing 124 days of lactation. The experimental design consisted of a doublé Latin square (4×4) with four treatments, four periods and four animals per square. Results: a reduction (p < 0.05) was observed in gas production from total carbohydrates and fiber carbohydrates. Replacement of corn with whole mango meal showed no effect on DM intake (1,890 g/d), crude protein (278 g/d) and neutral detergent fiber (959 g/d). Milk production (4% fat-corrected) and milk composition were not affected by the treatments, except for fat and myristoleic fatty acid contents. The economic evaluation showed a reduction in the total feeding cost and a better benefit:cost ratio. Conclusion: whole mango meal can replace corn up to 330 g/Kg in the diet of lactating goats.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Arlington (VA): Inc; 1990. Anigbogu NM, Bienstman P, Van Damme B, Ezeokoli CD. Incorporation of dry Mangifera indica kernel in the concentrate ration of growing lambs. Rev Elev Med Vet Pay 2006; 59:39-42
Aragão ASL, Pereira LGR, Chizzotti ML, Voltolini TV, Azevêdo JAG, Barbosa LD, Santos RD, Araújo GGL, Brandão LGN. Farelo de manga na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento. Arq Bras Med Vet Zoo 2012; 64:967-973. Cabiddu A, Molle G, Decandia M, Spada S, Fiori M, Piredda G, Addis M. Responses to condensed tannins of flowering sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) grazed by dairy sheep. Part 2: Effects on milk fatty acid profile. Livest Sci 2009; 123:230–240. Cavalcante MA, Clementino RH, Neiva JN. Consumo e digestibilidade da matéria seca de dietas contendo diferentes níveis de subproduto da manga. Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science; 2006 Jul 24-27; João Pessoa, Brazil. João Pessoa: Brazilian Society of Animal Science; 2006.Chilliard Y, Ferlay A, Doreau M. Effect of different types of forages, animal fat or marine oils in cow’s diet on milk fat secretion and composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Livest Prod Sci 2001; 70:31-48. Choudhury MM. Perdas de frutas e hortaliças na pós-colheita. Petrolina: Informe CPATSA; 1995.Guyomard H, Manceron S, Peyraud JL. Trade in feed grains, animals and animal products: current trends, future prospects and main issues. Anim Frontiers 2013; 3:14-18. Hall MB. Calculation of non-structural carbohydrate content of feeds that contain non-protein nitrogen. Florida: Bull. Tech. University of Florida; 2000.Hofmann RR. Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive system. Oecologia 1989; 78:443-457. Huber K, Queiroz JH, Moreira AVB, Ribeiro SMR. Caracterização química do resíduo agroindustrial da manga Ubá (Mangifera indica L.): uma perspectiva para a obtenção de antioxidantes naturais. Rev Bras Tecnol Agroind 2012; 6:640-654. ISO. Animal and Vegetable Fats and Oils - Preparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids (method ISO 5509). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 1978.Licitra G, Hernandez TM, Van Soest PJ. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1996; 57:347–358. Liu FX, Fu SF, Bi XF, Chen F, Liao XJ, Hu XS, Wu JH. Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China. Food Chem 2013; 138:396-405. Mertens DR. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study. J AOAC Int 2002; 85:1217-1240. Murphy JJ, Connolly JF, Mcneill GP. Effects on cow performance and milk fat composition of feeding full fat soybeans and rapeseeds to dairy cows at pasture. Livest Prod Sci 1995; 44:13-25. NRC, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of small ruminants. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 2007.
Park YW, Juarez M, Ramos M, Haenlein GFW. Physicochemical characteristics of goat and sheep milk. Small Ruminant Res 2007; 68:88-113. R Development Core Team. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria, the R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2013.Rukmini C, Vijayaraghavan M. Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of mango kernel oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1984; 61: 789-792.SAS. Statistical Analysis System. User’s guide., Version 9.1, Ed. Cary (NC): USA. SAS Institute Inc. 2003.Shahidi F, Naczk MF.Food phenolcs: sources, chemitrys, effects and applications. Lancaster (PA): Technomic Publishing Co. Inc; 1995.Theodorou MK, Williams BA, Dhanoa MS, McAllan AB, France J. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetic of ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 1994; 48:185-197. Toral PG, Hervás G, Bichi E, Belenguer A, Frutos P. Tannins as feed additives to modulate ruminal biohydrogenation: Effects on animal performance, milk fatty acid composition and ruminal fermentation in dairy ewes fed a diet containing sunflower oil. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2011; 164:199-206.
UNEP. United Nations Environment Programme, New effort launched to measure and monitor global food loss and waste. UNEP News Centre; 2013.Van Soest PJ, Wine RH. Use of detergents in analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determinations of plant cell-wall constituents. J AOAC Int 1967; 50:50-55. Van Soest PJ. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University; 1994. Wadhwa M, Bakshi MPS. Utilization of fruit and vegetable wastes as livestock feed and as substrates for generation of other value-added products. FAO Publications 2013. [Access date: November 20, 2013]. URL: http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3273e/i3273e00.htm Welch JG. Rumination, particle size and passage from the rumen. J Anim Sci 1982; 54:885-894. Wolfe MR, Terrill TH, Muir JP. Drying method and origin of standard affect condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in perennial herbaceous legumes using simplified butanol-HCl CT analysis. J Sci Food Agr 2008; 88:1060-1067.
How to Cite
The authors enable RCCP to reprint the material published in it.
The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions, and will allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.