Tracoma: de lo básico a lo clínico

Palabras clave: Azitromicina, Ceguera, Chlamydia trachomatis, Enfermedades Desatendidas, Tracoma

Resumen

El tracoma es una de las Enfermedades Tropicales Desatendidas; lo producen los serotipos A, B, Ba y C de la bacteria intracelular Chlamydia trachomatis, adquirida a partir de la diseminación directa por contacto ocular, propagación indirecta por fómites, transmisión por moscas que buscan los ojos y contacto con los dedos contaminados con secreciones oculares y nasales. En la actualidad es la principal causa de ceguera prevenible en el mundo, representa el 1,4 % de los casos totales y genera el deterioro visual de 1,8 millones de personas, de las cuales 500 000 tienen ceguera. Se calcula que hay 51 países endémicos distribuidos en África, Asia, Latinoamérica y Oceanía. En América hay focos activos en Brasil, México, Guatemala y Colombia. Las manifestaciones oculares iniciales son epífora, inyección conjuntival y secreción mucopurulenta; con el curso crónico se producen queratitis, entropión, triquiasis y opacidades corneales. El diagnóstico es básicamente clínico. Para eliminar esta enfermedad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud formuló el Programa Global para la Eliminación del Tracoma para 2020, basado en la implementación de la estrategia SAFE, consistente en cirugía para evitar complicaciones, tratamiento antibiótico, higiene facial y corporal y mejoramiento de las condiciones ambientales. 

|Resumen
= 205 veces | PDF
= 153 veces|

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Biografía del autor/a

Julián Carvajal-Fernández, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

Estudiante de Medicina.

José Daniel Villegas-Mesa, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

Estudiante de medicina.

Laura Quintero-Gutiérrez, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

Estudiante de medicina.

Daniel Duque , Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana.

Estudiante de medicina.

Aníbal José Cabrales-López, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Estudiante de medicina.

Citas

(1.) World Health Organization. Global plan to combat neglected tropical diseases 2008–2015 [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2007 [cited 2016 Jun]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69708/1/WHO_CDS_NTD_2007.3_eng.pdf

(2.) Feasey N, Wansbrough-Jones M, Mabey DC, Solomon AW. Neglected tropical diseases. Br Med Bull. 2010;93:179-200. DOI 10.1093/bmb/ldp046.

(3.) Houweling TA, Karim-Kos HE, Kulik MC, Stolk WA, Haagsma JA, Lenk EJ, et al. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 May;10(5):e0004546. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004546.

(4.) Ault SK, Saboyá MI, Nicholls RS, Requejo RH. Control y eliminación de cinco enfermedades desatendidas en América Latina y el Caribe, 2010-2015: Anáisis de avances, prioridades y líneas de acción para filariasis linfática, esquistosomiasis, oncocercosis, tracoma y helmintiasis transmitidas por el contacto con el suelo [Internet]. Organización Panamericana de la Salud: Washington D.C.; 2010 [consultado 2016 Jun]. Disponible en: http://www1.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2011/Prioritization_NTD_PAHO_ Dec_17_2010_Sp_cor.pdf

(5.) Kappagoda S, Ioannidis JP. Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 May;92(5):356-366C. DOI 10.2471/BLT.13.129601.

(6.) Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec;380(9859):2197-223. DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4. Erratum in: Lan- cet. 2013 Feb;381(9867):628.

(7.) Simon GG. Impacts of neglected tropical disease on incidence and progression of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria: scientific links. Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jan;42:54-7. DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.11.006.

(8.) Taylor HR, Burton MJ, Haddad D, West S, Wright H. Trachoma. Lancet. 2014 Dec;384(9960):2142-52. DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62182-0.

(9.) Gaydos CA, Quinn TC. Chlamydial Infections. In: Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine [Internet]. 19th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015 [cited 2016 Jun]. Available from: http://ac-cessmedicine.mhmedical.com.consultaremota.upb.edu.co/content.aspx?sectionid=79737875&bookid=1130&jumpsectionID=98717434&Resultclick=2

(10.) Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012 May;96(5):614- 8. DOI 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300539.

(11.) West SK, Courtright P. Trachoma Control: 14 Years Later. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2015;22(3):145-7. DOI 10.3109/09286586.2015.1037847.

(12.) Schneider MC, Aguilera XP, Barbosa da Silva Junior J, Ault SK, Najera P, Martinez J, et al. Elimination of neglected diseases in latin america and the Ca- ribbean: a mapping of selected diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Feb;5(2):e964. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000964.

(13.) World Health Organization. Trachoma [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2015 [cited 2016 Jun]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/ fs382/en/

(14.) Montgomery MA, Bartram J. Short-sightedness in sight-saving: half a strategy will not eliminate blinding trachoma. Bull World Health Organ. 2010 Feb;88(2):82. DOI 10.2471/BLT.09.075424.

(15.) Lavett DK, Lansingh VC, Carter MJ, Eckert KA, Silva JC. Will the SAFE strategy be sufficient to eliminate trachoma by 2020? Puzzlements and possible solutions. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013 May;2013:648106. DOI 10.1155/2013/648106.

(16.) Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Tracoma [Internet]. Bogotá: Minsalud; 2015 [consultado 2016 Jun]. Disponible en: https://www.minsalud.gov.co/salud/publica/PET/Paginas/Tracoma.aspx.

(17.) Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Organización Mundial de la Salud. Datos clave de las enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas: ceguera por tracoma [Internet]. Estados Unidos: OPS/OMS; 2014 [consultado 2016 Jun]. Disponible en: http://www.paho.org/ hq/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=24739&Itemid=270

(18.) Global Alliance for the Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by 2020. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2013 Jun;88(24):242-51.

(19.) Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Ceguera por Tracoma. Bogotá: Grupo de Enfermedades Transmisibles Minsalud; 2016. Protocolo de Vigilancia en Salud Pública.

(20.) Shattock AJ, Gambhir M, Taylor HR, Cowling CS, Kaldor JM, Wilson DP. Control of trachoma in Australia: a model based evaluation of current interventions. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Apr;9(4):e0003474. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003474.

(21.) Ryan KJ, Ray C. Chlamydia. In: Ryan KJ, Ray C, editors. Sherris Medical Microbiology [Internet]. 6a ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014 [cited 2016 Jun 01]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mh-medical.com.consultaremota.upb.edu.co/content. aspx?bookid=102 0&Sectionid=56968781

(22.) Levinson W. Chlamydiae. In: Levinson W. eds. Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology [Internet]. 13th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014 [cited 2016 Jun 02]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mh-medical.com.consultaremota.upb.edu.co/content.as px?bookid=1023&Sectionid=57053464

(23.) Taylor HR. Doyne Lecture: trachoma, is it history? Eye (Lond). 2009 Nov;23(11):2007-22. DOI 10.1038/eye.2008.432.

(24.) Brunham RC, Laga M, Simonsen JN, Cameron DW, Peeling R, McDowell J, et al. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among mothers of children with trachoma. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Nov;132(5):946-52.

(25.) Baneke A. Review: Targeting trachoma: Strategies to reduce the leading infectious cause of blindness. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;10(2):92-6. DOI 10.1016/j.tmaid.2012.01.005.

(26.) Carroll KC, Hobden JA, Miller S, Morse SA, Mietzner TA, Detrick B, et al. Chlamydia spp. In: Carroll KC, Hobden JA, Miller S, Morse SA, Mietzner TA, Detrick B, et al. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology [Internet]. 27th ed. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill; 2015 [cited 2016 Jun 03]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com.consultaremota.upb.edu.co/content.aspx?sectionid=94108262&bookid=1551&jumpsectionID=94108294&Resultclick=2

(27.) Burton MJ. Trachoma: an overview. Br Med Bull. 2007;84:99-116. DOI 10.1093/bmb/ldm034.

(28.) Smith JL, Sivasubramaniam S, Rabiu MM, Kyari F, Solomon AW, Gilbert C. Multilevel Analysis of Trachomatous Trichiasis and Corneal Opacity in Nigeria: The Role of Environmental and Climatic Risk Factors on the Distribution of Disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Jul;9(7):e0003826. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003826.

(29.) Hu VH, Holland MJ, Burton MJ. Trachoma: protective and pathogenic ocular immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7(2):e2020. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002020.

(30.) King JD, Ngondi J, Gatpan G, Lopidia B, Becknell S, Emerson PM. The burden of trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Sep;2(9):e299. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000299.

(31.) Verbeke P, Stahl L, Jungas T, Delarbre C, Ojcius DM. A pathogen with two personalities: Death and Survival during infection with Chlamydia. In: Bavoil PM, Wyrick PB, editors. Chlamydia: Genomics and Pathogenesis. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2006. p. 297-318.

(32.) Nijm LM, Garcia-Ferrer FJ, Schwab IR, Augsburger JJ, Corrêa ZM. Conjunctiva & Tears. In: Riordan-Eva P, Cunningham ET, editors. Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology [Internet]. 18th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011 [cited 2016 Jun 3]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=387&sectionid=40229322

(33.) Wright SW, Jack M. Chapter 21. Tropical Medicine. In: Knoop KJ, Stack LB, Storrow AB, Thurman R. eds. The Atlas of Emergency Medicine [Internet]. 3a ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2010 [cited 2016 Jun 3]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/ content.aspx?bookid=1763&sectionid=125438067

(34.) Chaudhry IA. Eradicating blinding trachoma: What is working? Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2010 Jan;24(1):15-21. DOI 10.1016/j.sjopt.2009.12.008.

(35.) Hu VH, Weiss HA, Massae P, Courtright P, Makupa W, Mabey DC, et al. In vivo confocal microscopy in scarring trachoma. Ophthalmology. 2011 Nov;118(11):2138- 46. DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.04.014.

(36.) Geisler WM. Enfermedades causadas por clamidias. En: Goldman L, Schafer AI, editores. Cecil y Goldman Tratado de medicina interna [Internet]. 24th ed. Barcelona: Elsevier; 2013. p 1920-26 [consultado 2016 Jun 4]. Disponible en: https://www.clinicalkey.es/#!/ content/book/3-s2.0-B9788480869713003260

(37.) World Health Organization. Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment: Trachoma simplified grading card [Internet]. [cited 2016 Jun 4]. Available form: http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/trachoma_documents/en/

(38.) Bhosai SJ, Bailey RL, Gaynor BD, Lietman TM. Trachoma: an update on prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012 Jul;23(4):288- 95. DOI 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32835438fc.

(39.) Lanjouw E, Ouburg S, de Vries HJ, Stary A, Radcliffe K, Unemo M. Background review for the ‘2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections’. Int J STD AIDS. 2015 Nov. pii: 0956462415618838.

(40.) Yorston D. Ophthalmology. In: Davidson R, Brent A, Seale A, editors. Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine. 4a ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2014. p. 565-86.

(41.) Batteiger BE, Tan M. Chlamydia trachomatis (tracoma, infecciones genitales, infecciones perinatales y linfogranuloma venéreo). En: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blasser MJ, editores. Enfermedades infecciosas. Principios y práctica. 8a ed. Barcelona: Elsevier; 2016. p 2267-85. Disponible en: https://www.clinicalkey.es/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9788490229170001827

(42.) Nishiwaki-Dantas MC, de Abreu MT, de Melo CM, Romero IL, Neto RB, Dantas PE. Direct fluorescent antibody assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66(12):2013-8.

(43.) Ho DK, Sawicki C, Grassly N. Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae after Azithromycin Distribution for Trachoma. J Trop Med. 2015;2015:917370. DOI 10.1155/2015/917370.

(44.) Solomon AW, Harding-Esch E, Alexander ND, Aguirre A, Holland MJ, Bailey RL, et al. Two doses of azithromycin to eliminate trachoma in a Tanzanian community. N Engl J Med. 2008 Apr;358(17):1870-1. DOI 10.1056/NEJMc0706263.

(45.) Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, Gower EW. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov;(11):CD004008. DOI 10.1002/14651858.CD004008.pub3.

(46.) Rajak SN, Habtamu E, Weiss HA, Kello AB, Abera B, Zerihun M, et al. The outcome of trachomatous trichiasis surgery in Ethiopia: risk factors for recurrence. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug;7(8):e2392. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002392.

(47.) Habtamu E, Wondie T, Aweke S, Tadesse Z, Zerihun M, Mohammed A, et al. Impact of Trichiasis Surgery on Quality of Life: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Apr;10(4):e0004627. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004627.

(48.) Rajak SN, Habtamu E, Weiss HA, Kello AB, Gebre T, Genet A, et al. Surgery versus epilation for the treatment of minor trichiasis in Ethiopia: a randomised controlled noninferiority trial. PLoS Med. 2011 Dec;8(12):e1001136. DOI 10.1371/journal. pmed.1001136.

(49.) Gambhir M, Pinsent A. Possible changes in the transmissibility of trachoma following MDA and transmission reduction: implications for the GET2020 goals. Parasit Vectors. 2015 Oct;8:530. DOI 10.1186/s13071-015-1133-6.

(50.) Emerson P. The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: poised for rapid scale-up. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(86):38.

(51.) Solomon AW, Kurylo E. The global trachoma mapping project. Community Eye Health. 2014;27(85):18.

(52.) Liu F, Porco TC, Amza A, Kadri B, Nassirou B, West SK, et al. Short-term Forecasting of the Prevalence of Trachoma: Expert Opinion, Statistical Regression, versus Transmission Models. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Aug;9(8):e0004000. DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004000. Erratum in: PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Sep;9(9):e0004129.

(53.) Négrel AD, Mariotti SP. WHO alliance for the global elimination of blinding trachoma and the potential use of azithromycin. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1998 Nov;10(4):259-62. DOI 10.1016/S0924- 8579(98)00046-6.

Publicado
2017-07-04
Cómo citar
1.
Carvajal-Fernández J, Villegas-Mesa JD, Quintero-Gutiérrez L, Duque D, Cabrales-López AJ. Tracoma: de lo básico a lo clínico. Iatreia [Internet]. 4 de julio de 2017 [citado 20 de septiembre de 2021];30(3):309-20. Disponible en: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/27051
Sección
Artículos de revisión