Enfermedad del hígado graso asociada con la disfunción metabólica. Una nueva propuesta para una dolencia en auge

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iatreia.101

Palabras clave:

Cáncer hepático, Cirrosis hepática, Hígado graso, Síndrome metabólico

Resumen


La enfermedad por hígado graso no alcohólica se caracteriza por la acumulación de grasa hepática que  xcede el 5 % de su peso. El espectro de esta condición incluye la esteatosis hepática, esteatohepatitis y fibrosis progresiva con cirrosis. Además, existe la posibilidad de desarrollar hepatocarcinoma sin el antecedente de cirrosis. Su fisiopatología se basa actualmente en el componente metabólico y se considera como la manifestación hepática de una disfunción metabólica sistémica.
La acumulación de grasa causa citotoxicidad, inflamación y fibrosis. Debido al auge en su investigación, se ha propuesto el término de enfermedad del hígado graso asociado con una disfunción metabólica, confiriéndole unos criterios diagnósticos claros y retirando el concepto como entidad de descarte.
El diagnóstico incluye la documentación de esteatosis hepática y fibrosis como marcador pronóstico mediante estudios imagenológicos y puntajes bioquímicos. El tratamiento consiste en la reducción del peso y mejorar la condición metabólica basal. Actualmente, se encuentran en estudio nuevos fármacos que buscan interferir con la inflamación hepática. El manejo incluye, además, el control del riesgo cardiovascular y de  tras enfermedades concomitantes.

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Biografía del autor/a

María Fernanda Saavedra-Chacón, Universidad CES

Residente de medicina interna. 

Santiago Pérez, Universidad CES

Fellow de Gastroenterología. 

Luis Gonzalo Guevara, Universidad CES

Médico internista, gastroenterólogo, hepatólogo. Coordinador de posgrado de Gastroenterología

Citas

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Publicado

2021-03-04

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1.
Saavedra-Chacón MF, Pérez S, Guevara LG. Enfermedad del hígado graso asociada con la disfunción metabólica. Una nueva propuesta para una dolencia en auge. Iatreia [Internet]. 4 de marzo de 2021 [citado 28 de noviembre de 2021];34(3):241-52. Disponible en: https://revistas.udea.edu.co/index.php/iatreia/article/view/343526

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