Passivity-based control for DC-microgrids with constant power terminals in island mode operation
Keywords:DC-microgrid, Passity, Passivity based control, Hamiltonian structure, Stabilization
This paper presents a Passivity Based Control (PBC) for a dc microgrid. PBC is commonly used in electrical systems such as power electronics converters and electric machines, but there are few applications in microgrids operating in island mode. PBC is based on properties of passive systems and energy exchange between subsystems. The proposed strategy performs primary and secondary control of the hierarchical architecture. Local communications and measurements are needed at the nodes where dc/dc converters are placed. Simulation studies are performed in MATLAB to validate the control in a realistic test system composed of renewable energies sources, loads and energy storage units. Results show that the proposed control ensures stability and fast response of the dc-bus voltage under different operating conditions.
C. Bordons, F. García, and L. Valverde, ”Gestión óptima de la energía en microrredes con generación renovable,” Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 117-132, 2015.
P. P. Barker and R. W. De Mello, ”Determining the impact of distributed generation on power systems: Part 1-radial distribution systems,” in Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Seattle, USA, 2000, pp. 1645-1656.
R. H. Lasseter, ”Microgrids,” in Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, New York, USA, 2002, pp. 305-308.
D. E. Olivares et al., ”Trends in microgrid control,” IEEE Transactions on smart grid, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1905-1919, 2014.
T. Dragicevic, J. C. Vasquez, J. M. Guerrero, and D. Skrlec, ”Advanced LVDC electrical power architectures and microgrids: A step toward a new generation of power distribution networks,” IEEE Electrification Magazine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 54-65, 2014.
D. Chen and L. Xu, ”DC microgrid with variable generations and energy storage,” in IET Conference on Renewable Power Generation (RPG 2011), Edinburgh, UK, 2011, pp. 1-6.
K. Kurohane et al., ”A distributed dc power system in an isolated island,” in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Seoul, South Korea, 2009, pp. 1-6.
H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, T. Ise, and R. Uchida, ”Dc micro-grid for super high quality distributionsystem configuration and control of distributed generations and energy storage devices,” in 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2006, pp.1-7.
Z. H. Jian, Z. Y. He, J. Jia, and Y. Xie, ”A review of control strategies for DC micro-grid,” in Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP), Beijing, China, 2013, pp. 666-671.
D. Boroyevich, ”Future electronic power distribution systems a contemplative view,” in 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment, Brasov, Romania, 2010, pp. 1369-1380.
T. Dragičević, X. Lu, J. C. Vásquez, and J. M. Guerrero, ”Dc microgrids-Part I: A review of control strategies and stabilization techniques,” IEEE Transactions on power electronics, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 4876-4891, 2016.
R. Ortega and E. García, ”Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Control: A Survey,” European Journal of Control, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 432-450, 2004.
Kwasinski and P. T. Krein, ”Passivity-Based Control of Buck Converters with Constant-Power Loads,” in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Orlando, USA, 2007, pp. 259-265.
A. Kwasinski and P. T. Krein, ”Stabilization of constant power loads in DC-DC converters using passivity-based control,” in INEC 07 - 29th International Telecommunications Energy Conferenc, Rome, Italy, 2007, pp. 867-874.
J. Zeng, Z. Zhang, and W. Qiao, ”An Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity-Based Controller for a DCDC Boost ConverterWith a Constant Power Load,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 2314-2322, 2014.
E. Lenz, D. J. Pagano, and V. Stramosk, ”Nonlinear control applied to a dc-dc power converter and the load sharing problem in a dc microgrid,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 534-539, 2014.
K. Mu, X. Ma, X. Mu, and D. Zhu, ”Study on passivity-based control of voltage source PWMDC/AC inverter,” in International Conference on Electronic and Mechanical Engineering and Information Technology, Harbin, China, 2011, pp. 3963-3967.
M. Perez, R. Ortega, and J. R. Espinoza, ”Passivity-based PI control of switched power converters,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 881-890, 2004.
M. Y. Ayad, M. Becherif, D. Paire, A. Djerdir, and A. Miraoui, ”Passivity-Based Control of Hybrid Power Sources using Fuel Cell, Supercapacitors, and Batteries on the DC link for Energy Traction System,” in IEEE International Electric Machines Drives Conference, Antalya, Turkey, 2007, pp. 453-458.
S. Mane, F. Kazi, and N. M. Singh, ”Fuel cell and ultra-capacitor based hybrid energy control using IDA-PBC methodology,” in International Conference on Industrial Instrumentation and Control (ICIC), Pune, India, 2015, pp. 879-884.
S. M. Mane et al., ”Passivity Based Control of Complex Switched Mode FC-UC Hybrid Structure with BM Modeling,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 48, no. 30, pp. 345-350, 2015.
A. Tofighi and M. Kalantar, ”Passivity-based control of PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid power source,” in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Phoenix, USA, 2011, pp. 902–908.
M. Mohammedi et al., ”Fuzzy logic and passivity based control applied to hybrid DC power source using fuel cell and battery,” in 4 th International Conference on Systems and Control (ICSC), Sousse, Tunisia, 2015, pp. 510-515.
M. Mohammedi et al., ”Passivity Based Control and Fuzzy Logic Estimation applied to DC hybrid power source using Fuel Cell and supercapacitor,” in 3 rd International Conference on Systems and Control, Algiers, Algeria, 2013, pp. 77-82.
M. Srinivasan and A. Kwasinski, ”Decentralized control of a vehicular microgrid with constant power loads,” in IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), Florence, Italy, 2014, pp. 1-8.
X. Cai, C. Zhao, T. Li, and L. Li, ”Passivity-based control of HVDC transmission system based on modular multilevel converter under unbalanced grid conditions,” in 2 nd IET Renewable Power Generation Conference (RPG), Beijing, China, 2013, pp. 1-4.
A. Jaafar, G. Bergna, J. C. Vannier, and P. Lefranc, ”Energy concept-based nonlinear stabilization and control for Modular Multilevel Converters for voltage oscillation reduction,” in 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’14-ECCE Europe), Lappeenranta, Finland, 2014, pp. 1-10.
A. Kwasinski and C. N. Onwuchekwa, ”Dynamic Behavior and Stabilization of DC Microgrids With Instantaneous Constant- Power Loads,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 822-834, 2011.
Y. Gu, W. Li, and X. He, ”Passivity-Based Control of DC Microgrid for Self-Disciplined Stabilization,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2623-2632, 2015.
F. Dorfler and F. Bullo, ”Kron reduction of graphs with applications to electrical networks,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, vol. 60, no. 1, 150-163, 2013.
A. Chakrabarti and S. Halder, Power System Analysis: Operation And Control, 3 rd ed. New Delhi, India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2010.
R. Ortega, A. Loría, P. J. Nicklasson, and H. Sira,Passivity-based Control of Euler-Lagrange Systems. London, United Kingdom: Springer London, 1998.
R. Ortega and E. Garca, ”Interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control: A survey,” European Journal of control, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 432-450, 2004.
J. C. Willems, ”Dissipative dynamical systems part i: General theory,” Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 321-351, 1972.
M.Wu and D. D. Lu, ”A novel stabilizationmethod of LC input filter with constant power loads without load performance compromise in DC microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4552-4562, 2015.
C. Gavriluta, I. Candela, C. Citro, A. Luna, and P. Rodriguez, ”Design considerations for primary control in multi-terminal VSC-HVDC grids,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 122, pp.33-41, 2015.
K. A. Saleh, A. Hooshyar, and E. F. El, ”Hybrid passiveovercurrent relay for detection of faults in low-voltage DC grids,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 3, 1129-1138, 2017.
L. Herrera,W. Zhang, and J.Wang, ”Stability analysis and controller design of DC microgrids with constant power loads,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 881-888, 65 2017.
S Pulido, J. P. Martin, B. Nahid, and S. Pierfederici, ”Stabilization of a distributed DC power system by shaping loads input impedance: Feedforward stabilization,” in 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON, Dallas, USA, 2014, pp. 1820-1826.
T. Dragicevic, J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, and D. krlec, ”Supervisory control of an adaptive-droop regulated DC microgrid with battery management capability,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 695-706, 2014.
N. Bottrell, M. Prodanovic, and T. C. Green, ”Dynamic stability of a microgrid with an active load,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 5107-5119, 2013.
A. Kwasinski and C. N. Onwuchekwa, ”Dynamic behavior and stabilization of DC microgrids with instantaneous constant power loads,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 822-834, 2011.
J. Beerten and R. Belmans, ”Analysis of power sharing and voltage deviations in droop-controlled DC grids,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4588-4597, 2013.
M. Hamzeh, A. Ghazanfari, Y. A. Mohamed, and Y. Karimi, ”Modeling and design of an oscillatory current-sharing control strategy in DC microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 6647-6657, 2015.
A. Maknouninejad, Z. Qu, F. L. Lewis, and A. Davoudi, ”Optimal, nonlinear, and distributed designs of droop controls for DC microgrids,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2508-2516, 2014.
V. Nasirian, S. Moayedi, A. Davoudi, and F. L. Lewis, ”Distributed cooperative control of DC microgrids,” IEEE Transac tions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 2288-2303, 2015.
A. Karimi, A. Pirayesh, T. S. Aghdam, and M. Ajalli, ”DC microgrid small signal stability analysis,” in 18th Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks (EPDC), Kermanshah, Iran, 2013, pp. 1-4.
K. Rykov, L. Ott, J. L. Duarte, and E. A. Lomonova, ”Modelling of aggregated operation of power modules in low-voltage DCgrids,” in 16th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE14-ECCE Europe), Lappeenranta, Finland, 2014, pp. 1-9.
How to Cite
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. The material published in the journal can be distributed, copied and exhibited by third parties if the respective credits are given to the journal. No commercial benefit can be obtained and derivative works must be under the same license terms as the original work.