Effectiveness of two retainer types in dental and occlusal stability


  • Sandra Liliana Gómez-Gómez Universidad de Antioquia
  • Luis Fernando Salazar-Quiceno Universidad de Antioquia
  • Diego Alejandro Guisao Universidad de Antioquia
  • Jhon Jairo Betancur-Pérez Universidad de Antioquia
  • Ángela María Segura-Cardona Universidad CES




Orthodontic retainers, Dental occlusion dental arch


Introduction: with the purpose of providing additional details on the selection of retainer type, this study sought to assess the stability of dental and occlusal position during retention phase using two types of retainers in individuals with no remnant growth who completed orthodontic treatment at the Universidad de Antioquia School of Dentistry, Universidad CES, and in private practice in Medellín in 2011. Methods: this was a controlled clinical study with a sample of 47 patients aged 15 to 45 years, randomly selected into two treatment groups: 22 patients with Essix retainer and 25 patients with Hawley plate in both arches. Cephalometric X-rays and study models were taken on all patients at baseline and six months later with monthly clinical evaluations. Results: the clinical and radiographic results showed significant differences in some tooth rotations in terms of upper intercanine distance and molar relationship, but overall there were no statistically significant differences between both retainers in the three space planes. Conclusions: there were no statistically significant differences between the retainers in a six-month evaluation period.

= 181 veces | PDF (ESPAÑOL (ESPAÑA))
= 108 veces|


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sandra Liliana Gómez-Gómez, Universidad de Antioquia

DMD, Specialist in Comprehensive Dentistry of the Adolescent and Orthodontics. Assistant Professor, School of Dentistry, Universidad de Antioquia

Luis Fernando Salazar-Quiceno, Universidad de Antioquia

DMD, Student of Clinical Specialization in Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Universidad de Antioquia 

Diego Alejandro Guisao, Universidad de Antioquia

DMD, Student of Clinical Specialization in Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Universidad de Antioquia.

Jhon Jairo Betancur-Pérez, Universidad de Antioquia

DMD, Specialist in Comprehensive Dentistry of the Adolescent and Orthodontics. Specialist in Health Services Management: Marketing, Specialist in University Didactics. Associate Professor, School of Dentistry, Universidad de Antioquia.

Ángela María Segura-Cardona, Universidad CES

Computational Statistician, MSc in Epidemiology, PhD in Epidemiology. Researcher in the Epidemiology and Biostatistics Research Group, Universidad CES


Onyeaso CO. Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004; 126(5):604-607.

Joondeph DR. Retention and relapse. En: Graber T, Vanarsdall R. Orthodontics current principles and techniques. 3.ª ed. St Louis: Mosby; 2000. p. 985-1012.

Thilander B, Pena L, Infante C, Parada SS, de Mayorga C. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. An epidemiological study related to different stages of dental development. Eur J Orthod 2001; 23(2): 153-167.

Franco AM, Álvarez E, Tobón SM, Jiménez R, Roldán S. Estudio epidemiológico integral del proceso salud-enfermedad bucal de los usuarios del servicio odontológico de Comfenalco Antioquia. CES Odontol 1999; 12(2): 13-20.

Melrose C, Millett DT. Toward a perspective on orthodontic retention? Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998; 113(5): 507-514.

Botero PM, Vélez N, Cuesta DP, Gómez E, González PA, Cossio M et al. Perfil epidemiológico de oclusión dental en niños que consultan a la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia. CES Odontol 2009; 22(1): 9-13.

Plazas J, Martínez O, Castro L, Solana A, Villalba L. Prevalencia de maloclusiones en niños de una escuela de Cartagena de Indias. Ciencia y Salud Virtual 2011; 3(1): 2-8.

Mafla AC, Barrera DA, Muñoz GM. Maloclusión y necesidad de tratamiento ortodóntico en adolescentes de Pasto, Colombia. Rev Fac Odontol Univ Antioq 2011; 22(2): 173-185.

Carrillo G, Córdoba N, Correa MV, Vera A, Bastidas L, Perdomo AF. Prevalencia de las maloclusiones verticales en pacientes tratados en la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, sede Bogotá. Rev Nal Odontol 2008; 4(7): 24-31.

Ministerio de la Protección Social. ENSAB III Colombia. Bogotá: El Ministerio;1998.

Araujo E, Souki M. Bolton anterior tooth size discrepancies among different malocclusion groups. Angle Orthod 2003; 73(3): 307-313.

Canut JA. Ortodoncia clínica. Barcelona: Salvat; 1988.

Strang RH. Factors of influence in producing a stable result in treatment of malocclusions. Am J Orthod Oral Surg 1946; 32(6): 313-332.

Thilander B. Biological basis for orthodontic relapse. Semin Orthod 2000; 6(3):195-205.

Reitan K. Clinical and histologic observations on tooth movement during and after orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod 1967; 53(10): 721-745.

Canut JA, Plasencia E. Retención y recidiva. Consideraciones actuales. Rev Esp Ortod 1984; 14: 139-158.

Solow B. The dentoalveolar compensatory mechanism: background and clinical implications. Br J Orthod 1980; 7(3): 145-161.

Reitan K. Tissue rearrangement during the retention of orthodontically rotated teeth. Angle Orthod 1959; 29(2): 105-113.

Horowitz SL, Hixon EH. Physiologic recovery following orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod 1969; 55(1): 1-4.

Jacobs RM, Brodie AG. Tonic and contractile components of the oral vestibular forces in young subjects with normal occlusion. Am J Orthod 1966; 52(8): 561-575.

Riedel RA. A review of the retention problem. Angle Orthod 1960; 30(4): 179-199.

Reitan K. Principles of retention and avoidance of posttreatment relapse. Am J Orthod 1969; 55(6): 776-790.

Nanda R, Burstone CJ. Contención y estabilidad en ortodoncia. Editorial Médica Panamericana; 1994.

Rodríguez E, Casasa R. Retención y recidiva. En: Casasa R. Ortodoncia contemporánea. Diagnóstico y tratamiento. Caracas: Amolca; 2005. p. 247-256.

Beherents R. A treatise on the continuum of growth in the aging craniofacial skeleton. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Center for Human Growth and Development; 1984.

Little RM, Riedel RA, Artun J. An evaluation of changes in mandibular anterior alignment from 10 to 20 years postretention. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1988; 93(5): 423-428.

Kucukkeles N, Acar A, Biren S, Arun T. Comparisons between cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1999; 24(1): 47-52.

Hellsing E. Cervical vertebral dimensions in 8, 11, and 15-year-old children. Acta Odontol Scand 1991; 49(4): 207-213.

Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107(1): 58-66.

Hägg U, Taranger J. Maturation indicators and the pubertal growth spurt. Am J Orthod 1982; 82(4): 299-309.

Hägg U, Taranger J. Skeletal stages of the hand and wrist as indicators of the pubertal growth spurt. Acta Odont Scand 1980; 38(3): 187-200.

Fishman, L. Radiographic evaluation of skeletal maturation: a clinically oriented study based on hand-wrist films. Angle Orthod 1982; 52(2): 88-112.

Bernal N, Arias MI. Indicadores de maduración esquelética y dental. Rev CES Odont 2007; 20(1): 59-68.

Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72(4): 316-323.

Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) Method for the Assessment of Optimal Treatment in Dentofacial Orthopedics. Semin Orthod 2005; 11(3): 119-129.

Marcotte M. Biomecánica en ortodoncia. Barcelona: Ediciones Científicas y Técnicas; 1992. p. 153-155.

Rodríguez E, Natera A, Casasa R, Rocha A, Del Pozo E, Coutiño C et al. Retención en Ortodoncia. En: 1001 tips en ortodoncia y sus secretos. Caracas: Amolca; 2007. p. 335-382.

Rowland H, Hichens L, Williams A, Hills D, Killingback N, Ewings P, et al. The effectiveness of Hawley and vacuum-formed retainers: A single-center randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 132(6): 730-737.

Pratt MC, Kluemper GT, Lindstrom AF. Patient compliance with orthodontic retainers in the postretention phase. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 140(2): 196-201.

Lindauer SJ, Shoff RC. Comparison of Essix and Hawley retainers. J Clin Orthod 1998; 32(2): 95-97.

Sauget E, Covell DA Jr, Boero RP, Lieber W. Comparison of occlusal contacts with use of Hawley and clear overlay retainers. Angle Orthod 1997; 67(3): 223-230.

Dincer M, Isik B. Effects of thermoplastic retainers on occlusal contacts. Eur J Orthod 2010; 32(1): 6-10.

Barlin S, Smith R, Reed R, Sandy J, Ireland AJ. A retrospective randomized double-blind comparison study of the effectiveness of Hawley vs vacuum-formed retainers. Angle Orthod 2011; 81(3): 404-409.

Tsai C. Comparison of the effects of an Essix and Hawley retainer on post-orthodontic occlusion. Saint Louis: Master of Science of Dentistry. Saint Louis University. Dentistry School; 2010.

Tibbetts JR. The effectiveness of three orthodontic retention systems: A short term clinical study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1994; 106(6): 671.

Thickett E, Power S. A randomized clinical trial of thermoplastic retainer wear. Eur J Orthod 2010; 32(1): 1-5.

Tynelius GE, Bondemark L, Lilja-Karlander E. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment after 1 year of retention—a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Orthod 2010; 32(5): 542-547.

Gill DS, Naini FB, Jones A, Tredwin CJ. Part-time versus full-time retainer wear following fixed appliance therapy: a randomized prospective controlled trial. World J Orthod 2007; 8(3): 300-306.

Sheridan JJ, Ledoux W, McMinn R. Essix retainers: fabrication and supervision for permanent retention. J Clin Orthod 1993; 27(1): 37-45.

Hawley CA. A removable retainer. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1919; 5(6): 291-305.

Kingsley N. Oral deformities. New York: Appleton and Company; 1880.

Angle EH. Retention. En: Treatment of malocclusion of teeth. Philadelphia: White Dental Manufacturing Company; 1907. p. 263-304.

Björk A. Facial growth in man, studied with the aid of metallic implants. Acta Odontol Scand 1955; 13(1): 9-34.

Behrents R. Atlas for growth in the aging craniofacial skeleton. Monograph 18, craniofacial growth series, center for human growth and development, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor: Mich; 1986.

Behrents RG, Harris EF, Vaden JL, Williams RA, Kemp DH. Relapse of orthodontic treatment results: growth as an etiologic factor. J Charles H. Tweed Int Found 1989; 17(1): 65-80.

Jäderberg S, Feldmann I, Engström C. Removable thermoplastic appliances as orthodontic retainers—a prospective study of different wear regimens. Eur J Orthod 2012; 34(4): 475- 479.



How to Cite

Gómez-Gómez, S. L., Salazar-Quiceno, L. F., Guisao, D. A., Betancur-Pérez, J. J., & Segura-Cardona, Ángela M. (2016). Effectiveness of two retainer types in dental and occlusal stability. Revista Facultad De Odontología Universidad De Antioquia, 28(1), 34–53. https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rfo.v28n1a2

Most read articles by the same author(s)