Prevalence of dental enamel defects in children and adolescents from pasto, Colombia

  • Ana Cristina Mafla Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia – Pasto
  • Doris Lucía Córdoba-Urbano Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto
  • Maritza Natalia Rojas-Caicedo Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto.
  • Manuel Alejandro Vallejos-de la Rosa Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto.
  • María Fernanda Erazo-Sánchez Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.
  • Juliana Rodríguez-Caicedo Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.
Keywords: Dental fluorosis, Dental enamel hypoplasia, Epidemiology, Oral health, Children, Adolescents


Introduction: the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental enamel defects (ED) in children and adolescents from Pasto, Colombia. Methods: five hundred and ninety-nine children and adolescents aged 6 to 15 years from three municipalities of Pasto, Colombia were clinically examined for fluoride opacity and enamel hypoplasia. Scientific literature and color photographs of the oral cavity were previously studied by two examiners in order to diagnose ED in these municipalities. Severity of fluoride opacity was assessed with Dean’s index and enamel hypoplasia with Silberman’s index. Results: ED prevalence in children and adolescents was 49.9% (95% CI: 45.8% - 53.9%). Most of them, 85.3%, had fluoride opacities (FOP) and 14.7% enamel hypoplasia. The predominant type of FOP severity was the moderate level (73.7%). FOP were more prevalent in females (86.3%) than in males (84.2%) (p > 0.05), while enamel hypoplasia was more frequent in males (15.8%) than in females (13.7%) (p > 0.05). Enamel hypoplasia appeared as creamy-white and brown lesions and were most frequently found in permanent upper central incisors. Conclusions: ED prevalence was high in these municipalities. Fluoride opacities were the most frequent and were classified as moderate according to Dean’s index. New studies are required to establish levels of fluoride exposure in these communities. Certainly, these findings represent a public health problem.

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Author Biographies

Ana Cristina Mafla, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia – Pasto
DMD, MS in Public Health. Head of the Grupo de Investigaciones en Odontología (GIOD). School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto
Doris Lucía Córdoba-Urbano, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto
DMD, Specialist in Healthcare Management and Quality Audit. Researcher Professor. School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto
Maritza Natalia Rojas-Caicedo, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto.
Dentistry Students. School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.
Manuel Alejandro Vallejos-de la Rosa, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia - Pasto.

Dentistry Students. School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.

María Fernanda Erazo-Sánchez, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.

Dentistry Students. School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.

Juliana Rodríguez-Caicedo, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.

Dentistry Students. School of Dentistry, Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto.


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How to Cite
Mafla A. C., Córdoba-Urbano D. L., Rojas-Caicedo M. N., Vallejos-de la Rosa M. A., Erazo-Sánchez M. F., & Rodríguez-Caicedo J. (2014). Prevalence of dental enamel defects in children and adolescents from pasto, Colombia. Revista Facultad De Odontología Universidad De Antioquia, 26(1), 106-125. Retrieved from