Prevalence of dental enamel defects in children and adolescents from pasto, Colombia
Keywords:Dental fluorosis, Dental enamel hypoplasia, Epidemiology, Oral health, Children, Adolescents
Introduction: the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental enamel defects (ED) in children and adolescents from Pasto, Colombia. Methods: five hundred and ninety-nine children and adolescents aged 6 to 15 years from three municipalities of Pasto, Colombia were clinically examined for fluoride opacity and enamel hypoplasia. Scientific literature and color photographs of the oral cavity were previously studied by two examiners in order to diagnose ED in these municipalities. Severity of fluoride opacity was assessed with Dean’s index and enamel hypoplasia with Silberman’s index. Results: ED prevalence in children and adolescents was 49.9% (95% CI: 45.8% - 53.9%). Most of them, 85.3%, had fluoride opacities (FOP) and 14.7% enamel hypoplasia. The predominant type of FOP severity was the moderate level (73.7%). FOP were more prevalent in females (86.3%) than in males (84.2%) (p > 0.05), while enamel hypoplasia was more frequent in males (15.8%) than in females (13.7%) (p > 0.05). Enamel hypoplasia appeared as creamy-white and brown lesions and were most frequently found in permanent upper central incisors. Conclusions: ED prevalence was high in these municipalities. Fluoride opacities were the most frequent and were classified as moderate according to Dean’s index. New studies are required to establish levels of fluoride exposure in these communities. Certainly, these findings represent a public health problem.
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